Each set of 2 responses has its own instructions:

Respond substantively to a minimum of two of your peers



Respond to at least two classmates’ postings.


Help Ingrid to understand how the district’s CFA can assist her instructional efforts. Given her current second-quarter goals, offer one suggestion for an appropriate formative assessment strategy in Language Arts and Math.

The tricky thing would be spending time on a lesson while having students understand the material. However, more than half may fail or barely pass on the assessments. As a new teacher, I know that she may feel a little bit more pressure. Mentoring Ingrid includes explaining to her that Common Formative Assessments (CFAs) are provided to the students multiple times a year for several reasons. One of the main reasons would be to ensure that every student in the classroom is at the same level. This means that she will know if a student is falling behind or working ahead of the other students, meaning they may need more attention. Another reason would be a perpetual configuration of the classroom, school, and district assessments to prepare students better for success on the state assessments, according to Ainsworth (2008). Basically, she could do a practice test for the state assessment at the end of the year. Ingrid would ensure all her students will pass since she knows what needs to be worked on to prepare them for testing. One formative assessment strategy for Language Arts and Math would be to set daily assessments such as one or two questions on the material being taught. This way, she knows who is grasping the material and where they may be lost. According to Hansen (2015), for math, the assessment will include adding, subtracting, and multiplying fractions, dividing a whole number by a fraction, and estimating.

What advice would you give Melanie for developing assessments for learning that encourage and bring smiles to her kindergartners?

The advice that I can give Melanie is that every kid loves playing games. My favorite thing about students in kindergarten is that they have the wildest or craziest imaginations ever. I would use those towards any assessment because she could ask them what they think the number one looks like. She can have them draw what the number looks like to them. I would also tell her not to give up on helping them learn because within the first 5-6 years of anyone’s life is where we will learn the most.

Discuss how and why formative assessment is considered an evaluation for learning and why summative assessments are considered assessments of learning. What advice would you give these teachers to help them evaluate the advantages of each?

Formative assessments refer to various methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course. Formative assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring, or learning standards they have not yet achieved to make adjustments to lessons, instructional techniques, and academic support. The general goal of formative assessment is to collect detailed information that can be used to improve instruction and student learning while it’s happening. What makes an assessment “formative” is not the design of a test, technique, or self-evaluation, per se, but the way it is used—i.e., to inform in-process teaching and learning modifications (Great Schools Partnership, 2014).

My best advice to the teachers is that these assessments are essential because they help the teacher set up a lesson plan that will help students become successful during the lesson.


Great Schools Partnerships. (2014). Formative Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.edglossary.org/formative-assessment/ (Links to an external site.)

Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S. (2015). Curriculum and instruction for the 21st century [Electronic Version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/


Help Ingrid to understand how the district’s CFA can assist her instructional efforts. Given her current second-quarter goals, offer one suggestion for an appropriate formative assessment strategy in Language Arts and in Math.

Ingrid can use the feedback from the scores on how students are doing and where they need to improve. With those results as an educator it will show were your strong areas of teaching are and where as an educator there needs to be improvements. Ingrid can use the backwards planning process by putting the end results in place and goals that need to be met for the students to be ready for the CFA’s that are given (Hansen, Buczynski & Puckett, 2015, Section 4.1).

What advice would you give Melanie for developing assessments for learning that encourage and bring smiles to her kindergartners?

Melanie can still use her current methods just add more interactive fun material to her assessment process. Melanie could use student conferences where she can take time with a handful of students daily when doing her CFA’s. After getting results she can set goals for each child based on prior test results to get students where they need to be. Melanie could include other things like a white board to draw answers on interactive material that must be used. Allowing more interaction and hands on can help the kindergarten age group stay focused. (Hansen, Buczynski & Puckett, 2015, Section 5.2) From my experience with assessments I have put together a binder with all the essential material that my students should know by the end of the school year. I collaborate with my other preschool teacher where I am employed so that we are on the same page with what our students should know when transitioning from one classroom to another. We do quarterly assessments to see the progress and see the areas that still need to be focused on.

Discuss how and why formative assessment is considered assessment for learning, and why summative assessments are considered assessment of learning. What advice would you give these teachers to help them consider the advantages of each?

According to our text formative assessments are the most powerful assessments for improving student understanding and performance. Formative assessments are very flexible and easy to use in all kinds of classroom settings. They are direct and give results immediately. Summative assessments are good to reiterate the lesson that was being taught. Using the questioning method for this is very successful and produces critical thinking about what was understood from a lesson. I would encourage these teachers to do their own research on what assessment would work best for the way that they run the classroom daily. Both assessments allow the teachers to see where and what needs to be improved by the students and teachers.


Desiree Beck


Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S. (2015). Curriculum and instruction for the 21st century [Electronic Version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/

Respond to at least two classmates’ postings.


Answer the following questions and tell how considering these questions helps you to connect with each of the student-centered instructional models and why.


Student-Centered Model

Can you name any projects or inquiries that you participated in as a student? Did they teach you any other skills besides the particular content area?

In high school, one elective I had was a cooking class, and we would work in groups often and cook for other classmates. We would have to decide on the type of dish, figure out the ingredients, and set up a presentation. I learned to follow a recipe because any misstep can mess up the entire dish. As a group, we needed to make sure our math skills were accurate for measuring out ingredients. Another project I did was on a famous landmark of the country. The teacher gave us a list of landmarks, and we had to choose from, do research, create a PowerPoint, and present to the class.

Create a list of several projects, problems, or inquiries that could be used at the grade levels or content areas in which you are preparing to teach.

I want to teach Kindergarten. Some projects I would have them participate in are…

· Role-plays for expectations in the classroom and how we treat others.

· Hands-on science experiments like caterpillar life cycle, making snow, five senses.

· Retell a story with a group of peers or be creative and draw a picture representing the story.

· Visual learning posters that the students help create.

· A family culture/background project

· Cooking activities

Do you have any recollection of plays, simulations, debates, or mock trials that you participated in as a student? What were some learning benefits you received from these experiences?

I do not remember participating in any plays or debates in subjects like social studies, government, or science class in school. The teachers would mostly give lectures and take a test. However, when we were on the topic of plays, my English teacher let people choose a character to read. I did like to read aloud because they brought the characters alive. I also needed to pay attention not only when it was my turn but also when other classmates read for the text to make sense. It helps me now when I read to imagine what a character sounds like, and when I read aloud to my class, I notice how I change my voice.

When considering these questions, I realized that I did not have many experiences where I worked in many groups throughout my education, had mock trials or debates. It shows how far education has come in the last 20 years. I think if I had experienced these student-centered activities, I would have remembered them because of the higher-order thinking, researching, and collaborating with others. As a future educator, it is important to me that I plan with student-centered activities in mind. Students need to have those moments where they were challenged academically, socially, and mentally to be prepared for the demands of college and the workforce to solve any problem.


“For students to gain these foundational skills of self-reliance, they will need, in addition to the more teacher-directed models, more student-centered strategies,” (Hansen, et. al., 2015, sec. 6.4). While I was a student, I remember a few projects that stand out. One particular project was dissecting different organs. I could never handle seeing a full dead animal, but I was fascinated by the organs. We learned how to properly handle organs, prepare for dissections, measuring out incisions, how each organ worked along with special facts, and that death is apart of the life cycle. I did not fully understand what death meant until that point.

Although I am not aiming to become a teacher, I would teach kindergarten if I did decide to pursue teaching as a career path. I would like to do hands- on experiences.

· Students go outside and finding specific objects and draw them in their diary.

· Students travel to different tables in the room to learn about different cultures.

· “What would you do and what should you do” activity plays where students are presented with a situation and react. Then we go over as a class how to approach the situation. This would include ideas on safety, bullying, and interpersonal conflicts.

· Fun science experiments like coke in mentos, turning an egg translucent, invisible ink, and homemade lava lamps.

I did not participate in plays because I was too concerned with being embarrassed if I messed up, but I really enjoyed participating in mock projects. We were assigned roles within a court room and had to research the role. We would do a mock trial with attorneys making their cases. Juries deliberating, and the teacher would be the judge to oversee the trial. We also played a stock market game to see who would gain the most amount of money, but the market in our class crashed and it was determined by rolling dice to see if the bank would give us our money back (Great Depression simulation). One of the most impactful strategies I use to this day is a mock interview. We learned how to build resumes, dress, and interview properly to get a job within our classroom.

These questions would help me connect with students because I look back onto my experiences to bring fun learning strategies to my classroom. Those specific experience have stuck with me, and in turn I remembered the material better. If I enjoyed them while I was a student, I can interest other students in their learning and get them to participate further with their educational journey.


Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S. (2015). Curriculum and instruction for the 21st century. Bridgepoint Education

Discussion – Reader Response


Satire has always been my favorite genre. Its use of irony and exaggeration has always piqued my interest- especially when it is a subtle irony in which case you have to read between the lines to find it. My biggest weakness when it comes to writing is that I tend to get off track or go on tangents throughout my writing. Does anyone else have this issue? If so, how do you keep yourself from doing it? Top of Form


After reading and watching the lessons of this week, I have learned the many key components of narrative writing. The narrative format of writing is based on events that are personal to you. I feel that this makes it easier to write narrative essays because you pretty much already have all the information you need. I also learned about illustration and exemplification and how they can play a huge role in the key components of your essay. Other types of components you can include in your essay are humor, irony, and satire. I also learned more this week about the structure that you should apply in your essays. I feel that structure and staying on topic in an essay is something I really struggle with when writing but this weeks reading gave me a better idea.

Discussion – Clickbait Your Universal Theme


When I was a teenager I often stayed at my friends house. She was the pastors daughter and lived next to the church. One night the teenage boys decided they were gonna have a sleepover at the church. So I stayed with my friend that night. I guess it was sometime after midnight when we got the bright idea to toilet paper the guys’ vehicles and scare them by knocking on the doors of the church. Maybe the knocking part wasn’t such a good idea, because they opened the back door and saw us sneaking back to the house. They decided to run after us. Did I mention there was a cemetery behind the church? So here I am running for my life when all of sudden I’m tackled to the ground. My scream could have woken the dead. Well, it didn’t wake the dead but it did wake the pastor and his wife! Our punishment was almost a good ole fashioned butt whipping but they decided to be a little lenient and instead we spent the next day cleaning the house from top to bottom.


This time last year, a group of friends and I were living in the middle of Ethiopia. After not talking to our families for 3 months due to the lack of wifi, we decided to go on a hunt for internet. After a four-hour bus drive, that felt similar to riding a roller coaster, we finally reached this hostel. The hostel was surrounded by canopy trees and was quite beautiful, but the atmosphere was extremely nosy. The noises sounded like animals, however, there was none in sight. Once we reached the door, we were greeted by the owner of the hostel, a very kind Ethiopian man. After informing my group of all the rules, he said, “PS do NOT feed the monkeys.” A few hours later, my friend Mary was eating lunch, and out no where a monkey jumped on our table. Mary then proceeded to feed the monkey her burger. In a matter of seconds, we were surrounded by monkeys trying to steal our food. Luckily, none of my friends got bit, our food however was attacked. Needless to say, rules really are meant to be followed.

Discussion – Difficult Decision


People come in your life for certain reasons. They either stick with you forever or only a certain amount of time. To be able to have at least one best friend, consider yourself lucky. Last month I had to let go of my best friend. Although I considered her to be my best friend, the things she did to me does not meet up to that title. Our parents were best friends growing up which resulted in us becoming very close as children. We would always attend each other’s family functions and beach trips. During the beginning of our teenage years, my best friend moved two hours away from me. We saw each other only 3 times a year until recently. Last March she moved into her grandma’s house that was located five minutes away from me. We spent the whole quarantine together and caught up talking most of the time. It was great having a friend with you all the time but it also caused a lot of fighting and drama between the both of us. I realized who she really was while being with her almost everyday. She made me feel very low about myself to make herself feel better. She always considered herself right in every conversation we had. Everything was about her and the way she wanted to control the situation. I was tired of having to deal with that toxic energy around me. I could not be myself around her without her saying something rude. I eventually had enough, I started to fade away from the friendship. I told her how I felt and she disagreed with me. That’s when I knew she was not the type of person I wanted to be around. The friendship opened my eyes by teaching me how selfish people are and how they only look out for themselves. At the end of the day, I broke the friendship off for sake of letting each one of us grow. The future holds a lot and our friendship may be one thing that comes around again.


The year was 2016, it was a Tuesday. Also known as the day, I came across the World Race Instagram page. The page screamed, “Take a gap year to travel the world for Jesus, sign up today!”. I was already on a hunt for adventure, and this trip caught my attention. After school that day, I rushed home and told my mom, “Mom, I think I am going to move across the world.” She looked at me with concern, then began the questions. What are you talking about? Who is this organization? How will you pay for this? What about college? How long will you be gone? These questions repeated in my head for the next 3 years. Eventually, after much thought and wrestle, I decided to go. In 2019, I packed all my belongings into a backpack and joined 38 other strangers in the Atlanta airport to start an adventure of a lifetime. Over the course of 7 months, I lived by the volcanos of Guatemala, on the plains in Ethiopia, and ended my time overseas in a small hostel located in the middle of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Although this decision was impulsive, it was still the trip of a lifetime, and I have no regrets!

Discussion – A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to This Forum


Growing up I lived with two sisters, one was only a year older than me and the other was 13 years older than me. So I spent most of my time with my sister who was closer to my age. Throwing it back to the summer of middle school my sister and I spent most of our time at home with our disabled mom. We could not really leave the house because of our situation so we had to make the best of it. We were constantly being creative, playing outside, as well as having some friends over during the week.

One day during the week our cousin came over. She lived about 2 hours away from us at the time. Everytime she came over we always seemed to cause trouble. We would always pull pranks on each other, laugh a lot, and stay up late when we weren’t supposed to. We used to always play this game called ‘Guess the Food’. The rule of the game is to be blind folded and the other people who were not blind folded had to pick out random foods. We would mix the food together and feed it to one another. Sounds fun right? So one day we decided to play ‘Guess the Food’ because we had nothing better to do. My cousin and I already went and it was now my sister’s time to be blind folded. As she stands next to the pantry waiting patiently, my cousin and I gather some snacks to mix. We pulled out peanut butter as well as these tiny marshmallows we had. We scooped out the peanut butter and rubbed a little bit of it on the marshmallow. Without my sister preparing herself, I slammed the peanut butter marshmallow in her mouth. She instantly closed her mouth and started screaming “ITS A TOOTH, ITS A TOOTH” with a lisp. Knowing my cousin and I did not put a tooth in her mouth, had us dying laughing. Laughing to the point where my cousin ran to the bathroom to go pee. As she was running, she slipped around the corner of the hall and fell hard. That made the situation even funnier to us. With that being said, that day will never leave me. Each time we get together we always bring up that day which puts a smile on our faces.


A long time ago, in a galaxy far away I saw a sign posted in someone’s office. I assume the man who used the office was a pilot or at least loved to fly. The sign simply read, “The second greatest thrill known to man is flying. The first is landing!”. I make no bones about being a non-traditional student. In my late 30s and having been out of high school for over 20 years means that I’m a risk taker whether I want to believe it or not. For the last four years, since my divorce, my whole life has been a risk. In that time, as I try to discover myself, I’ve learned to embrace new experiences. Just this last year, I embraced a new experience that should make no sense to a sensible person. I flew in a plane for the first time. For some reason, I’ve managed to make it my entire life without feeling the need to leave Mother Earth. Yet here I was, about to risk life and limb by doing the unthinkable to fly across the country to visit my boyfriend. Long distance relationships are hard, especially when you’re plunging 30,000 feet to your death.

I’ve always wondered about flying. It makes no sense. Air is light. Airplanes are heavy. Airplanes are made of metal. Metal is heavier than air. Therefore, it should be physically impossible for metal to fly. And what’s with this whole airport thing? Can someone please explain why the airport is called a “terminal”? I don’t know about you, but where I’m from, “terminal” is a bad thing. If you are terminally ill, that means you’re not coming back. This story is NOT going to have a happy ending. Why can’t they just call it that-long-corridor-you-walk-down-to-get-on-your-heavier-than-air-piece of metal? Why do they have to use terminal, as if I wasn’t scared enough? I mean, most of the airplane movies I’ve ever seen did not have a happy ending. Snakes on a Plane, Lost, Manifest, and Airport ’77 all came to mind. None of those turned out well for the passengers. All of that ran through my mind as I boarded my first flight. I remembered with anxiety the last TV series I’d watched about airplanes. It was called “Manifest”. In that show, an airliner is engulfed in fog and lands five years later! I didn’t have five extra years to fly around. I had places to go and people to see! Thankfully, I did make one comforting discovery. Airplanes serve alcohol. Finally, I was able to calm myself down, sit back in my window seat and enjoy the splendor of the heavens. Flying wasn’t bad at all. That is until I looked out the window and realized I could no longer see the wing. It was completely engulfed in fog! Jesus wept.

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