Advanced pharmacology is a branch of medicine that deals with the action of different classes of drugs. Drugs are administered differently; some are injected into the blood system while others are administered orally. When a drug is administered through the mouth, it gets into the gastrointestinal tract. It is then transported to the liver by the portal vein. The drug is metabolized in the liver before being circulated to the target tissue. In some cases, only a small portion of the drug gets into the target tissue. This is because of the long process of transportation from the mouth to the tissue.
Patients sometimes experience a decrease in drug effects. Such cases are either caused by the depletion of neurotransmitters that are responsible for creating drug effects or reduction in the number of receptors. Reduction in the number of receptors is caused by a reduction in the number of cells. The reduction of drug effect due to depletion of receptors is known as tachyphylaxis. Half-life is considered as the time the liver takes to metabolize the drug by 50% and to produce the desired effect. Half-life is essential in multiple dosages as it helps determine the time to take before administering the next dose.
The time taken for the drug to get into the tissue is equal to the time taken for the drug to be eliminated from the tissue. This is known as the steady-state. It is the time taken for 50% of the drug concentration to be eliminated from the tissue. A clinician should ensure a patient has reached a steady-state before changing the dosage. Although a patient can use other sublingual routes for the first-pass metabolism, drug administration through the mouth to the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and tissue is the most common.
There are certain rules and regulations that doctors should abide by when prescribing and administering medication. Epinephrine is administered using an infusion pump. It is done continuously as one checks the heart rate or chest pain. Epinephrine is used for cardiac arrest. Levophed and vasopressin are both used for acute hypertension. The doctor should pump them carefully and continuously using an infusion pump as they monitor the heart rate. Peripheral vasodilators are meant for dilating blood vessels to prevent blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive prevents organ failure, Diltiazem is meant for managing hypertension. Advanced pharmacology is a branch of medicine that holistically analyzes classes of drugs and their actions in the body.
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