Business law IRAC method analysis

Issue Rule Analysis and Conclusion (IRAC) method is a format used in organizing answers to business law essay questions. The issue stands for the problem that was presented to the court. The rule represents the law that was applied to the case. The analysis is the use of facts and explanations to justify why the court used the rule. The conclusion represents the outcomes of the case. Your answer should be concise and relevant. Do not include the introduction and remember to stick to the number of words mentioned in the question.


The issue should be specific. You can also include the names of the parties involved. For instance, was there any contract between company AXZ and the complainant? The issue should be in the form of a question or a statement. Sometimes the issue is provided in the question. However, if it is not given, define the legal question that requires an answer? In case there is more than one issue write them separately.


The rule is the law that was applied in the case. Do not include the names of the parties in the rule. The rule appears as a general principle that is used in the issue. For instance, the sale of substandard products that can harm the customers is illegal and customers should be compensated by the company is an acceptable rule.


The analysis acts as the main and the most important part of an essay. It includes the rule together with explanations and facts. You can discuss both sides of the story. Explain why the rule was used in this issue and use supportive arguments about the case. The analysis should be concise and relevant to help the reader predict possible outcomes of related cases that might come up in the future. Use facts to explain how the rule was used to solve the problem and how it led to the conclusion.


The conclusion is the result of the case. It should have a yes or no. for instance, there was no contract between company AXZ and the complainant. The conclusion part should not contain a summary of the answer. Only include the outcome of the case.

IRAC method is used in answering business law essay questions. The answer should begin with the issue which is the problem, followed by the rule applied, the analysis and the conclusion which represents the outcomes of a case. The IRAC framework of organizing answers is mostly used in corporate law.


Bittner, M., 1990. The IRAC method of case study analysis: A legal model for social studies. The Social Studies, 81(5), pp.227-230.

Jensen, C.H., 2000. Legal problem questions: Analyzing rhetorical structures and strategies using” IRAC. Unpublished master’s thesis, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Candlin, C.N., Bhatia, V.K., and Jensen, C.H., 2002. Developing legal writing materials for English second language learners: Problems and perspectives. English for Specific Purposes, 21(4), pp.299-320.

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