Criminology in the era of globalization – trends, and implications
Globalization has massively contributed to the increase in crime globally. The development of technology and the internet has created a conducive environment for crime to thrive. Drug smuggling, human trafficking, cybercrimes, and terrorism are on the increase due to globalization.
According to the United Nations, human trafficking is growing rapidly. Close to four million people are trafficked every year. Most of them are women and girls trafficked for commercial sex. Close to 500 000 women and girls are trafficked every year to Western Europe. With the easy availability of global markets on the internet. There is an increase in money laundering. The money garnered through laundering is either invested in drugs or terrorism.
Audiovisual equipment such as television. Have played a role in publicizing terrorism. This has helped terrorists achieve their goal which is to create fear and panic among nations. Without the media, international terrorism would not thrive. Globalization has also made it easy to access weapons. Terrorists purchase these weapons on the internet. Apart from money laundering, terrorists also get money from security scams and credit card frauds
Globalization has also brought about cybercrimes. There are different types of cybercrimes such as malicious information leakage, credit card scam, extortion, and pornography. It is estimated that criminals make up to 100 billion dollars out of pornography. They later use the money in other ventures such as terrorism.
The internet has also improved the illegal trafficking of weapons, people and drugs. People engaging in illegal trafficking of weapons have now adopted new strategies to grow their business. They play a role in destabilizing governments and societies to increase the demand for weapons. Globalization has played a role in effecting organized crimes. Nowadays, drug smugglers in New York can interact and cooperate with terrorists in Russia at ease through the internet.
There are several challenges facing criminology in this globalization era. With the sovereignty of nations. It is difficult to arrest and punish criminals from other nations, given that each state has its own rules and regulations. The development of communication networks makes it easy to transfer funds. Such cases are almost untraceable by the police.
Globalization has not only led to the evolution of organized crime but it has also created a conducive environment for terrorism, money laundering, and human trafficking to thrive. It has also led to an increase in pornography and drug trafficking. The development of communication channels has made it easy for criminals from various regions to interact.
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Henne, K. and Troshynski, E., 2013. Mapping the margins of intersectionality: Criminological possibilities in a transnational world. Theoretical Criminology, 17(4), pp.455-473.
Rothe, D. and Friedrichs, D.O., 2014. Crimes of globalization. Routledge.