How to Write Annotated Bibliography

Writing Guide: How to Write Annotated Bibliography

How to Write Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of sources that you have used or plan to use in your research paper or project. Each source is followed by a brief summary and evaluation of its relevance, quality and credibility. An annotated bibliography helps you to organize your research, identify the main arguments and themes in the literature, and avoid plagiarism.

There are different types of annotations, such as descriptive, critical, evaluative, or a combination of these. The type of annotation you write depends on the purpose and scope of your research, as well as the expectations of your instructor. Here are some general guidelines on how to write an annotated bibliography:

– Select the sources that are most relevant and useful for your research topic. You can use scholarly sources like, websites, journals, libraries and academic databases to find reliable and up-to-date information. Make sure to use sources from years 2016-23 to reflect the current state of knowledge in your field.
– Cite each source in MLA format, following the rules and conventions for this citation style. You can use online tools like Citation Machine or EasyBib to generate citations automatically, or consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more details.
– Write a concise annotation for each source, summarizing its main points and evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. You can use active voice in your sentence structure to make your writing clear and direct. Where necessary, use subtitles to organize your annotation into sections, such as summary, evaluation, and relevance.
– Use an academic tone in your writing, avoiding informal language, slang, or personal opinions. You should also avoid redundancy, meaning repeating the same information or ideas in different words. Instead, use synonyms, paraphrases, or quotations to vary your expression and avoid plagiarism.
– Proofread your annotated bibliography for errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting. You can use online tools like Grammarly or Hemingway Editor to check your writing for clarity and correctness.

An example of an annotated bibliography entry for a journal article:

Peter, John. “The Impact of Social Media on Academic Performance.” Journal of Educational Research, vol. 25, no. 3, 2020, pp. 123-145.

This article examines how social media use affects the academic performance of college students. The author conducted a survey of 500 students from different majors and institutions, and analyzed their social media habits, grades, and self-reported satisfaction with their learning outcomes. The results showed that social media use had a negative correlation with academic performance, meaning that students who spent more time on social media had lower grades and less satisfaction with their education. The author also found that social media use had a positive correlation with stress levels, anxiety, and depression among students. The author concluded that social media use can have detrimental effects on students’ mental health and academic success, and suggested some strategies to reduce its negative impact.

This article is relevant and useful for my research project on the effects of technology on education. It provides empirical evidence and statistical analysis to support its claims, and uses credible sources to back up its arguments. It also offers some practical implications and recommendations for educators and students who want to improve their academic performance and well-being. However, the article has some limitations, such as the small sample size, the self-reported data, and the lack of control for other factors that may influence academic performance. Therefore, it should be used with caution and supplemented with other sources that address these limitations.

Lamott’s book encompasses information about a writer’s life. It discusses the challenges a writer faces and how they can overcome them. The book advises on how to overcome anxieties of writing and perfectionism. It also discusses aspects such as plot development.

Before deciding whether to use a summary or critical annotations, consider the objective or instructions given by the instructor. Include page numbers from the title page. Indent all paragraphs and use times New Times Roman font. Include a one-inch margin on all sides of all pages, which includes the top, bottom, right, and left.

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