Unit Assessment Pack (UAP) – Cover Sheet
Student and Trainer/Assessor Details
Student ID
Student name
Contact number
Email address
Trainer/Assessor name
Course and Unit Details
Course code ICT50115
Course name Diploma of Information Technology
Unit code BSBWHS501
Unit name Ensure a safe workplace

Assessment Submission Method
By hand to trainer/assessor

By email to trainer/assessor
Online submission via Learning Management System (LMS)

By Australia Post to RTO Any other method _________________________________________________
(Please mention here)

Student Declaration
I certify that the work submitted for this assessment pack is my own. I have clearly referenced any sources used in my submission. I understand that a false declaration is a form of malpractice;
I have kept a copy of this assessment pack and all relevant notes, attachments, and reference material that I used in the production of the assessment pack;
For the purposes of assessment, I give the trainer/assessor of this assessment the permission to:
Reproduce this assessment and provide a copy to another member of staff; and
Take steps to authenticate the assessment, including communicating a copy of this assessment to a checking service (which may retain a copy of the assessment on its database for future plagiarism checking).

Student signature: ________________________________

Date: ____/_____/______________

Assessment Plan
To demonstrate competence in this unit, you must be assessed as satisfactory in each of the following assessment tasks.

Evidence recorded Evidence Type/ Method of assessment Sufficient evidence recorded/Outcome
Unit Assessment Task 1 Unit Knowledge Test (UKT) S / NS (First Attempt)
S / NS (Second Attempt)
Unit Assessment Task 2 Unit Project (UP) S / NS (First Attempt)
S / NS (Second Attempt)
Final result C/NYC Date assessed

Trainer/Assessor Signature

Assessment Conditions

Unit purpose/application
This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to establish, maintain and evaluate the organisation’s work health and safety (WHS) policies, procedures and programs in the relevant work area, according to WHS legislative requirements. It takes a systems approach and addresses compliance with relevant legislative requirements.

This unit applies to managers working in a range of contexts who have or are likely to have responsibility for WHS as part of their broader management role. It is relevant for people with obligations under WHS legislation, for example persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBUs) or officers, as defined by relevant legislation.

NOTE: The terms ‘occupational health and safety’ (OHS) and ‘work health and safety’ (WHS) are equivalent and generally either can be used in the workplace. In jurisdictions where the Model WHS Legislation has not been implemented RTOs are advised to contextualise the unit of competency by referring to the existing State/Territory OHS legislative requirements.

No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.
What the student can expect to learn by studying this unit of competency

Establish a WHS management system in a work area
Establish and maintain effective and compliant participation arrangements for managing WHS in a work area
Establish and maintain procedures for effectively identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks in a work area
Evaluate and maintain a work area WHS management system

Training and assessment resources required for this unit of competency

The student will have access to the following:
Learner guide
PowerPoint presentation
Unit Assessment Pack (UAP)
Access to other learning materials such as textbooks
The resources required for these assessment tasks also include:
Access to a computer, the Internet and word-processing system such as MS Word
An operational business environment to implement the learning plan
Computer technology and documentation as required
Codes of practice and standards issued by government regulators or industry groups

Submission instructions
Your trainer/assessor will confirm assessment submission details for each assessment task.
Academic integrity, plagiarism and collusion

Academic Integrity:
Academic Integrity is about the honest presentation of your academic work. It means acknowledging the work of others while developing your own insights, knowledge and ideas.
As a student, you are required to:
Undertake studies and research responsibly and with honesty and integrity
Ensure that academic work is in no way falsified
Seek permission to use the work of others, where required
Acknowledge the work of others appropriately
Take reasonable steps to ensure other students cannot copy or misuse your work.

Plagiarism:
Plagiarism means to take and use another person’s ideas and or manner of expressing them and to pass them off as your own by failing to give appropriate acknowledgement. This includes material sourced from the internet, RTO staff, other students, and from published and unpublished work.
Plagiarism occurs when you fail to acknowledge that the ideas or work of others are being used, which includes:
Paraphrasing and presenting work or ideas without a reference
Copying work either in whole or in part
Presenting designs, codes or images as your own work
Using phrases and passages verbatim without quotation marks or referencing the author or web page
Reproducing lecture notes without proper acknowledgement.

Collusion:
Collusion means unauthorised collaboration on assessable work (written, oral or practical) with other people. This occurs when a student presents group work as their own or as the work of someone else.
Collusion may be with another RTO student or with individuals or students external to the RTO. This applies to work assessed by any educational and training body in Australia or overseas.
Collusion occurs when you work without the authorisation of the teaching staff to:
Work with one or more people to prepare and produce work
Allow others to copy your work or share your answer to an assessment task
Allow someone else to write or edit your work (without rto approval)
Write or edit work for another student
Offer to complete work or seek payment for completing academic work for other students.
Both collusion and plagiarism can occur in group work. For examples of plagiarism, collusion and academic misconduct in group work please refer to the RTO’s policy on Academic integrity, plagiarism and collusion.
Plagiarism and collusion constitute cheating. Disciplinary action will be taken against students who engage in plagiarism and collusion as outlined in RTO’s policy.
Proven involvement in plagiarism or collusion may be recorded on students’ academic file and could lead to disciplinary action.
Other Important unit specific Information

N/A

Unit outcome

This unit is not graded and the student must complete and submit all requirements for the assessment task for this cluster or unit of competency to be deemed competent.
Students will receive a ‘satisfactorily completed’ (S) or ‘not yet satisfactorily completed (NS) result for each individual unit assessment task (UAT).
Final unit result will be recorded as competency achieved/competent (C) or competency not yet achieved/not yet competent (NYC).

Prerequisite/s

Nil

Co-requisite/s

Nil

Foundation Skills

The Foundation Skills describe those required skills (learning, oral communication, reading, writing, numeracy, digital technology and employment skills) that are essential to performance. Foundation skills essential to performance are explicit in the performance criteria of this unit of competency.

Relevant Legislation

Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986
Age Discrimination Act 2004
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
Racial Discrimination Act 1975
Sex Discrimination Act 1984
The Privacy Act 1988 (Privacy Act) and Australian Privacy Principles (APPs)
Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004
Work Health and Safety Act 2011

Principles of assessment and rules of evidence

All assessment tasks will ensure that the principles of assessment and rules of evidence are adhered to.
The principles of assessment are that assessment must be valid, fair, flexible, reliable and consistent. The rules of evidence state that evidence must be sufficient, valid, current and authentic.

AQF Level

AQF levels and the AQF levels criteria are an indication of the relative complexity and/or depth of achievement and the autonomy required to demonstrate that achievement.

All assessment tasks must ensure compliance with the requirements of AQF level and the AQF level criteria. For more information, please visit https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/aqf.edu.au/

Further Information

For further information about this unit go to https://training.gov.au/Training/Details/BSBWHS501

Additional Information
This information will be managed by the provisions of the Privacy Act and the Freedom of Information Act.)
Students are required to satisfactorily complete and submit all assessment tasks that contribute to the assessment for a unit.
Students will be provided with one more attempt to complete this Unit assessment pack (UAP) if trainer/assessor deems them not satisfactorily completed (NS) in any Unit assessment task (UAT).
Unit Pre-Assessment Checklist (UPAC) will be reviewed by the trainer/assessor to ensure the student is ready for the assessment.
Feedback regarding this Unit Assessment Pack (UAP) can be emailed to the compliance and quality assurance department/administration department in your RTO for continuously improving our assessment and student resources.
Feedback to student
Feedback on students’ assessment performance is a vital element in their learning. Its purpose is to justify to students how their competency was assessed, as well as to identify and reward specific qualities in their work, to recommend aspects needing improvement, and to guide students on what steps to take.
Feedback defines for students what their trainer/assessor thinks is important for a topic or a subject. At its best, feedback should:
Be provided for each Unit Assessment Task (UAT)
Guide students to adapt and adjust their learning strategies
Guide trainers/assessors to adapt and adjust teaching to accommodate students’ learning needs
Be a pivotal feature of learning and assessment design, not an add-on ritual
Focus on course and unit learning outcomes
Guide students to become independent and self-reflective learners and their own critics
Acknowledge the developmental nature of learning

If students have not received proper feedback, they must speak to compliance and quality assurance department/administration department in the RTO/person responsible for looking after the quality and compliance services of the RTO.

For more information, please refer to RTO Student Handbook.

Unit Pre-Assessment Checklist (UPAC)
UAT 1 – Unit Knowledge Test (UKT)
Purpose of the checklist
The pre-assessment checklist helps students determine if they are ready for assessment. The trainer/assessor must review the checklist with the student before the student attempts the assessment task. If any items of the checklist are incomplete or not clear to the student, the trainer/assessor must provide relevant information to the student to ensure they understand the requirements of the assessment task. The student must ensure they are ready for the assessment task before undertaking it.
Section 1: Information for Students
Please make sure you have completed the necessary prior learning before attempting this assessment.
Please make sure your trainer/assessor clearly explained the assessment process and tasks to be completed.
Please make sure you understand what evidence is required to be collected and how.
Please make sure you know your rights and the Complaints and Appeal process.
Please make sure you discuss any special needs or reasonable adjustments to be considered during the assessment (refer to the Reasonable Adjustments Strategy Matrix and negotiate these with your trainer/assessor).
Please make sure that you have access to a computer and the internet (if you prefer to type the answers).
Please ensure that you have all the required resources needed to complete this Unit Assessment Task (UAT).
Due date of this assessment task is according to your timetable.
In exceptional (compelling and compassionate) circumstances, an extension to submit an assessment can be granted by the trainer/assessor.
Evidence of the compelling and compassionate circumstances must be provided together with your request for an extension to submit your assessment work.
Request for an extension to submit your assessment work must be made before the due date of this assessment task.
Section 2: Reasonable adjustments
Students with carer responsibilities, cultural or religious obligations, English as an additional language, disability etc. can request for reasonable adjustments.
Please note, academic standards of the unit/course will not be lowered to accommodate the needs of any student, but there is a requirement to be flexible about the way in which it is delivered or assessed.
The Disability Standards for Education requires institutions to take reasonable steps to enable the student with a disability to participate in education on the same basis as a student without a disability.
Trainer/Assessor must complete the section below “Reasonable Adjustment Strategies Matrix” to ensure the explanation and correct strategy have been recorded and implemented.
Trainer/Assessor must notify the administration/compliance and quality assurance department for any reasonable adjustments made.
All evidence and supplementary documentation must be submitted with the assessment pack to the administration/compliance and quality assurance department.
Reasonable Adjustment Strategies Matrix (Trainer/Assessor to complete)
Category Possible Issue Reasonable Adjustment Strategy
(select as applicable)
LLN Speaking
Reading
Writing
Confidence Verbal assessment
Presentations
Demonstration of a skill
Use of diagrams
Use of supporting documents such as wordlists
Non-English Speaking Background Speaking
Reading
Writing
Cultural background
Confidence Discuss with the student and supervisor (if applicable) whether language, literacy and numeracy are likely to impact on the assessment process
Use methods that do not require a higher level of language or literacy than is required to perform the job role
Use short sentences that do not contain large amounts of information
Clarify information by rephrasing, confirm understanding
Read any printed information to the student
Use graphics, pictures and colour coding instead of, or to support, text
Offer to write down, or have someone else write, oral responses given by the student
Ensure that the time available to complete the assessment, while meeting enterprise requirements, takes account of the student’s needs
Indigenous Knowledge and understanding
Flexibility
Services
Inappropriate training and assessment Culturally appropriate training
Explore understanding of concepts and practical application through oral assessment
Flexible delivery
Using group rather than individual assessments
Assessment through completion of practical tasks in the field after demonstration of skills and knowledge.
Age Educational background
Limited study skills Make sure font size is not too small
Trainer/Assessor should refer to the student’s experience
Ensure that the time available to complete the assessment takes account of the student’s needs
Provision of information or course materials in accessible format.
Changes in teaching practices, e.g. wearing an FM microphone to enable a student to hear lectures
Supply of specialised equipment or services, e.g. a note-taker for a student who cannot write
Changes in lecture schedules and arrangements, e.g. relocating classes to an accessible venue
Changes to course design, e.g. substituting an assessment task
Modifications to physical environment, e.g. installing lever taps, building ramps, installing a lift
Educational background Reading
Writing
Numeracy
Limited study skills and/or learning strategies Discuss with the Student previous learning experience
Ensure learning and assessment methods meet the student’s individual need
Disability Speaking
Reading
Writing
Numeracy
Limited study skills and/or learning strategies Identify the issues
Create a climate of support
Ensure access to support that the student has agreed to
Appropriately structure the assessment
Provide information or course materials in accessible format, e.g. a textbook in braille
Changes in teaching practices, e.g. wearing an FM microphone to enable a student to hear lectures
Supply of specialised equipment or services, e.g. a note- taker for a student who cannot write
Changes in lecture schedules and arrangements, e.g. relocating classes to an accessible venue
Changes to course design, e.g. substituting an assessment task
Modifications to physical environment, e.g. installing lever taps, building ramps, installing a lift

Explanation of reasonable adjustments strategy used (If required)

Unit Assessment Task (UAT)
Assessment Task 1 – Unit Knowledge Test (UKT)
Assessment type:
Written Questions

Assessment task description:
This is the first (1) unit assessment task you have to successfully complete to be deemed competent in this unit of competency.
The Unit Knowledge Test is comprised of twenty-two (22) written questions.
You must respond to all questions and submit them to your Trainer/Assessor.
You must answer all questions to the required level, e.g. provide the number of points, to be deemed satisfactory in this task.
You will receive your feedback within two weeks – you will be notified by your Trainer/Assessor when results are available.

Applicable conditions:
This knowledge test is untimed and are conducted as open book tests (this means you are able to refer to your textbook during the test).
You must read and respond to all questions.
You may handwrite/use computers to answer the questions.
You must complete the task independently.
No marks or grades are allocated for this assessment task. The outcome of the task will be Satisfactory or Not Satisfactory.
As you complete this assessment task you are predominately demonstrating your written skills and knowledge to your trainer/assessor.
The trainer/assessor may ask you relevant questions on this assessment task to ensure that this is your own work.

Resubmissions and reattempts:
Where a student’s answers are deemed not satisfactory after the first attempt, a resubmission attempt will be allowed.
You must speak to your Trainer/Assessor if you have any difficulty in completing this task and require reasonable adjustments (e.g. can be given as an oral assessment).
For more information, please refer to your RTO Student Handbook.

Location:
This assessment task may be completed in a learning management system (i.e. Moodle) or independent learning environment.
Your trainer/assessor will provide you further information regarding the location for completing this assessment task.

Instructions for answering written questions:
Complete a written assessment consisting of a series of questions.
You will be required to correctly answer all the questions.
Do not start answering questions without understanding what is required from you. Read the questions carefully and critically analyse them for a few seconds, this will help you to identify what is really needed.
Your answers must demonstrate an understanding and application of relevant concepts, critical thinking, and good writing skills.
Be concise to the point and write answers according to the given word-limit to each question and do not provide irrelevant information. Be careful, quantity is not quality.
Be careful to use non-discriminatory language. The language used should not devalue, demean, or exclude individuals or groups on the basis of attributes such as gender, disability, culture, race, religion, sexual preference or age. Gender inclusive language should be used.
When you quote, paraphrase, summarise or copy information from the sources you are using to write your answers/research your work, you must always acknowledge the source.

How your trainer/assessor will assess your work?
This assessment task requires the student to answer all the questions.
Answers must demonstrate the student’s understanding and knowledge of the unit.
If all assessment tasks are deemed Satisfactory (S), then the unit outcome is Competent (C).
If at least one of the assessment task is deemed Not Satisfactory (NS), then the unit outcome is Not Yet Competent (NYC).
Once all assessment tasks allocated to this Unit of Competency have been undertaken, trainer/assessor will complete an Assessment plan to record the unit outcome. The outcome will be either Competent (C) or Not Yet Competent (NYC).
The “Assessment Plan” is available with the Unit Assessment Pack (UAP) – Cover Sheet.

Purpose of the assessment task:

This assessment task is designed to evaluate your Knowledge for the following:
Knowledge to identify and detail relevant WHS Acts, regulations and codes of practice.
Knowledge to specify relevant WHS organisational policies, procedures, programs and practices.
Knowledge to specify relevant WHS organisational policies, procedures, programs and practices.
Knowledge to describe the hierarchy of risk control and how it is applied in the workplace.
Knowledge to specify in-house and WHS legislative reporting requirements.

Assessment Task 1 – Unit Knowledge Test (UKT)

Instructions:
This is an individual assessment.
The purpose of this assessment task is to assess the students’ knowledge essential to ensure a safe workplacein a range of contexts and industry settings.
To make full and satisfactory responses you should consult a range of learning resources, other information such as handouts and textbooks, learners’ resources and slides.
All questions must be answered in order to gain competency for this assessment.
You may attach a separate sheet if required.
You must include the following particulars in the footer section of each page of the attached sheets:
Student ID or Student Name
Unit ID or Unit Code
Course ID or Course Code
Trainer and assessor name
Page numbers
You must staple the loose sheets together along with the cover page.
You must attach the loose sheets chronologically as per the page numbers.
Correction fluid and tape are not permitted. Please do any corrections by striking through the incorrect words with one or two lines and rewriting the correct words.

Resources required to complete the assessment task:
Computer
Internet
MS Word
Printer or e-printer
Adobe acrobat/reader
Learning management system

Q1: Complete the following table for each state/territory WHS authorities:
State or territory WHS Act WHS Regulation WHS Codes of practice
Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

New South Wales (NSW)

Northern Territory (NT)

Queensland (Qld)

South Australia (SA)

Tasmania (Tas)

Victoria (Vic)

Western Australia (WA)

Q2: Describe why each of the following are important to your role in the business setting in 50-100 words:
2.a. Acts (20-30 words)
2.b. Regulations (30-50 words)
2.c. Regulating agencies (20-30 words)

Q3: Explain the rights and responsibilities and duty of care obligations of each of the following in 100-150 words:
3.a. Employer
3.b. Worker

Q4: Explain the term due diligence in your own words and what reasonable steps an officer must take to ensure the business complies with its work health and safety obligations and the officer is exercising and demonstrating due diligence and general duty requirements? (100-150 words)

Q5: What are the legislative requirements and “duty to consult requirements” on the following:
5.a. Consulting with workers (50-100 words)
5.b. Consulting with other duty holders at the same workplace (50-100 words)

Q6: Answer the following questions:
6.a. What is the definition of “hazardous manual tasks” according to the Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011 (WHS Regulations)?
6.b. Provide 3 (three) examples of hazardous manual tasks in an Information Technology sector?

Q7: Explain the importance of each of the following factors in a compliant WHS policy framework in your own 30-50 words (for each):
Factors Explanation

hazard, incident and injury reporting

hazard identification, risk assessment and control

human resources policies and procedures

consultation and participation

incident investigation and record-keeping

quality system documentation

designated person/s for raising issues

workplace support services

use of personal protective equipment (PPE)

emergency procedures

Q8: Describe each of the following principles of hazard and risk management and how these can be applied in the workplace in your own 50-100 words:
8.a. risk analysis
8.b. hazard identification procedures
8.c. hierarchy of control and its application
8.d. principles of risk assessment
8.e. examples of health and safety benchmarks
8.f. principles of safe design processes

Q9: What are the six (6) benefits of effective record keeping and WHS documentation procedures?

Q10: What are the four (4) common types of WHS documentation?

Unit Assessment Result Sheet (UARS)
Assessment Task 1 – Unit Knowledge Test (UKT)
Student and Trainer/Assessor Details
Unit code BSBWHS501
Unit name Ensure a safe workplace
Outcome of Unit Assessment Task (UAT) First attempt:

Outcome (please make sure to tick the correct checkbox):
Satisfactory (S) or Not Satisfactory (NS)

Date: _______(day)/ _______(month)/ ____________(year)
Second attempt:

Outcome (please make sure to tick the correct checkbox):
Satisfactory (S) or Not Satisfactory (NS)
Date: _______(day)/ _______(month)/ ____________(year)
Feedback to Student First attempt:

Second attempt:

Student Declaration I declare that the answers I have provided are my own work. Where I have accessed information from other sources, I have provided references and or links to my sources.
I have kept a copy of all relevant notes and reference material that I used as part of my submission.
I have provided references for all sources where the information is not my own. I understand the consequences of falsifying documentation and plagiarism. I understand how the assessment is structured. I accept that all work I submit must be verifiable as my own.
I understand that if I disagree with the assessment outcome, I can appeal the assessment process, and either re-submit additional evidence undertake gap training and or have my submission re-assessed.
All appeal options have been explained to me.
Student Signature
Date
Trainer/Assessor Name
Trainer/Assessor Declaration I hold:
Vocational competencies at least to the level being delivered
Current relevant industry skills
Current knowledge and skills in VET, and undertake
Ongoing professional development in VET
I declare that I have conducted an assessment of this candidate’s submission. The assessment tasks were deemed current, sufficient, valid and reliable. I declare that I have conducted a fair, valid, reliable, and flexible assessment. I have provided feedback to the above-named candidate.
Trainer/Assessor Signature
Date
Office Use Only Outcome of Assessment has been entered onto the Student Management System on _________________ (insert date)
by (insert Name) __________________________________

Unit Pre-Assessment Checklist (UPAC)
UAT 2 – Unit Project (UP)
Purpose of the checklist
The pre-assessment checklist helps students determine if they are ready for assessment. The trainer/assessor must review the checklist with the student before the student attempts the assessment task. If any items of the checklist are incomplete or not clear to the student, the trainer/assessor must provide relevant information to the student to ensure they understand the requirements of the assessment task. The student must ensure they are ready for the assessment task before undertaking it.
Section 1: Information for Students
Please make sure you have completed the necessary prior learning before attempting this assessment.
Please make sure your trainer/assessor clearly explained the assessment process and tasks to be completed.
Please make sure you understand what evidence is required to be collected and how.
Please make sure you know your rights and the Complaints and Appeal process.
Please make sure you discuss any special needs or reasonable adjustments to be considered during the assessment (refer to the Reasonable Adjustments Strategy Matrix and negotiate these with your trainer/assessor).
Please make sure that you have access to a computer and the internet (if you prefer to type the answers).
Please ensure that you have all the required resources needed to complete this Unit Assessment Task (UAT).
Due date of this assessment task is according to your timetable.
In exceptional (compelling and compassionate) circumstances, an extension to submit an assessment can be granted by the trainer/assessor.
Evidence of the compelling and compassionate circumstances must be provided together with your request for an extension to submit your assessment work.
Request for an extension to submit your assessment work must be made before the due date of this assessment task.
Section 2: Reasonable adjustments
Students with carer responsibilities, cultural or religious obligations, English as an additional language, disability etc. can request for reasonable adjustments.
Please note, academic standards of the unit/course will not be lowered to accommodate the needs of any student, but there is a requirement to be flexible about the way in which it is delivered or assessed.
The Disability Standards for Education requires institutions to take reasonable steps to enable the student with a disability to participate in education on the same basis as a student without a disability.
Trainer/Assessor must complete the section below “Reasonable Adjustment Strategies Matrix” to ensure the explanation and correct strategy have been recorded and implemented.
Trainer/Assessor must notify the administration/compliance and quality assurance department for any reasonable adjustments made.
All evidence and supplementary documentation must be submitted with the assessment pack to the administration/compliance and quality assurance department.
Reasonable Adjustment Strategies Matrix (Trainer/Assessor to complete)
Category Possible Issue Reasonable Adjustment Strategy
(select as applicable)
LLN Speaking
Reading
Writing
Confidence Verbal assessment
Presentations
Demonstration of a skill
Use of diagrams
Use of supporting documents such as wordlists
Non-English Speaking Background Speaking
Reading
Writing
Cultural background
Confidence Discuss with the student and supervisor (if applicable) whether language, literacy and numeracy are likely to impact on the assessment process
Use methods that do not require a higher level of language or literacy than is required to perform the job role
Use short sentences that do not contain large amounts of information
Clarify information by rephrasing, confirm understanding
Read any printed information to the student
Use graphics, pictures and colour coding instead of, or to support, text
Offer to write down, or have someone else write, oral responses given by the student
Ensure that the time available to complete the assessment, while meeting enterprise requirements, takes account of the student’s needs
Indigenous Knowledge and understanding
Flexibility
Services
Inappropriate training and assessment Culturally appropriate training
Explore understanding of concepts and practical application through oral assessment
Flexible delivery
Using group rather than individual assessments
Assessment through completion of practical tasks in the field after demonstration of skills and knowledge.
Age Educational background
Limited study skills Make sure font size is not too small
Trainer/Assessor should refer to the student’s experience
Ensure that the time available to complete the assessment takes account of the student’s needs
Provision of information or course materials in accessible format.
Changes in teaching practices, e.g. wearing an FM microphone to enable a student to hear lectures
Supply of specialised equipment or services, e.g. a note-taker for a student who cannot write
Changes in lecture schedules and arrangements, e.g. relocating classes to an accessible venue
Changes to course design, e.g. substituting an assessment task
Modifications to physical environment, e.g. installing lever taps, building ramps, installing a lift
Educational background Reading
Writing
Numeracy
Limited study skills and/or learning strategies Discuss with the Student previous learning experience
Ensure learning and assessment methods meet the student’s individual need
Disability Speaking
Reading
Writing
Numeracy
Limited study skills and/or learning strategies Identify the issues
Create a climate of support
Ensure access to support that the student has agreed to
Appropriately structure the assessment
provision of information or course materials in accessible format, e.g. a text book in braille
Changes in teaching practices, e.g. wearing an FM microphone to enable a student to hear lectures
Supply of specialised equipment or services, e.g. a note taker for a student who cannot write
Changes in lecture schedules and arrangements, e.g. relocating classes to an accessible venue
Changes to course design, e.g. substituting an assessment task
Modifications to physical environment, e.g. installing lever taps, building ramps, installing a lift

Explanation of reasonable adjustments strategy used (If required)

Unit Assessment Task (UAT)
Assessment Task 2 – Unit Project (UP)
Assessment type:
Unit Project (UP)

Assessment task description:
This is the second (2) assessment task you have to successfully complete to be deemed competent in this unit of competency.
This assessment task requires you to complete a project.
You must read and understand a declaration written by a community service practitioner and complete a set of activities in order to successfully complete this project.
You will receive your feedback within two weeks – you will be notified by your trainer/assessor when results are available.
You must attempt all activities of the project for your trainer/assessor to assess your competency in this assessment task.

Applicable conditions:
This project is untimed and are conducted as open book tests (this means you are able to refer to your textbook).
You must read and respond to all criteria of the project.
You may handwrite/use computers to answer the criteria of the project.
You must complete the task independently.
No marks or grades are allocated for this assessment task. The outcome of the task will be Satisfactory or Not Satisfactory.
As you complete this assessment task you are predominately demonstrating your practical skills, techniques and knowledge to your trainer/assessor.
The trainer/assessor may ask you relevant questions on this assessment task to ensure that this is your own work.

Resubmissions and reattempts:
Where a student’s answers are deemed not satisfactory after the first attempt, a resubmission attempt will be allowed.
You must speak to your Trainer/Assessor if you have any difficulty in completing this task and require reasonable adjustments (e.g. can be given as an oral assessment).
For more information, please refer to your RTO Student Handbook.

Location:
This assessment task may be completed in an independent learning environment or learning management system.
Your trainer/assessor will provide you further information regarding the location of completing this assessment task.

General Instructions for attempting the project:
You must correctly attempt all activities of this assessment task.
You will be read and understand a declaration written by a community service practitioner and complete a set of activities in this assessment task.
You will be expanding the knowledge and skills acquired during the previous assessment task.
Instructions to complete the given set of activities within the assessment task.

How your trainer/assessor will assess your work?
This assessment task requires the student to read and understand a declaration written by a community service practitioner and complete a set of activities.
Answers must demonstrate the student’s understanding and skills of the unit.
You will be assessed according to the provided performance checklist/ performance criteria.
Assessment objectives/ measurable learning outcome(s) are attached as performance checklist/ performance criteria with this assessment task to ensure that you have successfully completed and submitted the assessment task.
If all assessment tasks are deemed Satisfactory (S), then the unit outcome is Competent (C).
If at least one of the assessment task is deemed Not Satisfactory (NS), then the unit outcome is Not Yet Competent (NYC).
Once all assessment tasks allocated to this Unit of Competency have been undertaken, trainer/assessor will complete an Assessment plan to record the unit outcome. The outcome will be either Competent (C) or Not Yet Competent (NYC).
The “Assessment Plan” is available with the Unit Assessment Pack (UAP) – Cover Sheet.

Purpose of the assessment task:

This assessment task is designed to evaluate student’s following skills and abilities:
Skill and knowledge to interpret legislative instruments and WHS/OHS guidelines
Skill and knowledge to interpret hierarchy of control and risk analysis
Skill and knowledge to complete the risk control mechanism
Skill and knowledge to work on WHS procedures and developing them, as required
Skill and knowledge for effective WHS consultation
Skill and knowledge for identifying, mitigating and management of hazards and risks
Skill and knowledge to make sure responsible people are held accountable

Assessment Task 2 – Unit Project (UP)
Instructions to complete this assessment task:
Please write your responses in the template provided.
You may attach a separate sheet if required.
You must include the following particulars in the footer section of each page of the attached sheets:
Student ID or Student Name
Unit ID or Unit Code
Course ID or Course Code
Trainer and assessor name
Page numbers
You must staple the loose sheets together along with the cover page.
You must attach the loose sheets chronologically as per the page numbers.
Correction fluid and tape are not permitted. Please do any corrections by striking through the incorrect words with one or two lines and rewriting the correct words.
The premise of the project must be closely related to the previous assessment task.
This submission must be well presented and follow the guidelines and instructions provided.
Please follow the format as indicated in the template section below.
One of the most important steps that you can take: proofread your project.
Project must be completed using given templates, using 11-point font, double-spaced, and must include a cover page, table of contents, introduction, body, summary or conclusion, and works cited.
Appropriate citations are required.
All RTO policies are in effect, including the plagiarism policy.

Resources required to complete the assessment task:
Computer
Internet
MS Word
Printer or e-printer
Adobe acrobat/reader
Learning management system

Project Task:
This task is divided into five parts:
Part A: Risk assessment
Part B: Consultation and participation activity
Part C: Writing a recommendation for hazard analysis and control report
Part D: Developing WHS procedures for ongoing hazard identification, and assessment and control of associated risks
Part E: Developing and providing a WHS Induction and training program
You must use the attached templates to complete all activities of this assessment task.

Part A: Risk Assessment
This assessment task activity requires student to read and understand a declaration written by a WHS Officer and complete the following activities:
Conduct a workplace risk assessment and record the results, including:
identification of potential hazards and actual hazards
risk assessment
evaluation of policy/procedure in line with state/territory legislation and industry guidelines
development of risk controls and measures
Declaration by a WHS officer to his/her IT Manager:
Subject: REPORT ON HAZARDS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL FOR THE JURASSIC COMPUTERS STORE AND ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION SITE.
Sir, in view of the safety concerns of the company, (Jurassic Computers) a detailed safety audit was carried out at the hardware store and assembly/installation area. The purpose is to identify, analyse and adopt control measures for hazards associated with the job.
The safety audit is also meant to assess the present state of the company’s Work Health Safety and Environment (work health and safety (WHS) and environment management system: WHS&E – MS) – Management system to bring about improvements.
HAZARDS AND UNSAFE WORKING CONDITIONS
During the audit exercise, we identified several hazards and unsafe working conditions associated with the hardware store and assembly/installation area project and are stated below.
Incomplete personal protective equipments (PPEs): Most of the workers were seen working without their personal protective equipments because they were not given. The absence of these protective equipments is of great risk because some injuries which would have ordinarily been prevented are left unguarded due the absence of these equipments. The most essential required personal protective equipments (PPEs) for the job are:
Safety Boots
Hand Gloves
Splash Goggles
Safety Glasses
Safety Suits
Safety Caps
Safety Belts
Absence of fire emergency response personnel and facilities:
Absence of fire extinguisher at the computer hardware store and assembly/installation site.
There is no trained and competent fire watch on site.
Absence of fire alarm, flash point detectors and other fire safety aids around the company premises.
Occupational Health hazards to the workers resulting to their exposure to adverse weather conditions:
The direct effect of the sun rays on the workers working in building 2A and 3C (Heat Stroke and ultraviolet exposure).
Absence of workshop shade to prevent rain and electrical discharges that might result from thunder strikes.
The work site lacks a standard toilet facility; hence the workers take advantage of any available space within the company premises for such needs. This action is very unhygienic, coupled with the man hour lose it takes.
Faulty air-conditioning (thermal comfort) as it has not been serviced from last two years. When it should be done every six months.
Poor air quality because of faulty air-conditioning unit.
Improper lighting (as some areas are not properly and adequately have lights) which is causing tripping hazards.
Workstation set up that is not compliant to ergonomic standards
Excessive workload on to the workers that cause them finding shortcuts and compromising with the quality of the work.
Some of the very essential working equipments/tools are defective and in some cases absent. This has left the workers with no option but to resort to unsafe actions.
Absence of comprehensive scaffolds and ladder for climbing heights.
There are no facilities for lifting heavy equipments; hence the workers resort to manual carrying even without their PPES.
Some of the electrical wiring and cables are old, defective and potential sources of electrical leakage/shock.
Complete absence of barricades and caution signs along the River blank which happens to be very close to the computer hardware store. In fact, the River blank is just a few meters away from the work site and is a major safety concern, especially because most of the workers working around there are unable to swim.
General lack of awareness to safety, good housekeeping and contingency management.

HAZARDS ASSESSMENT AND CONSEQUENCE
Having identified some of the hazards and unsafe conditions associated with the computer hardware store and assembly/installation store job, we also need to analyse the consequence in order to understand and avert the impending contingencies that might arise.
When we place the frequency level of hazards and unsafe conditions around the work area, against the ISO1400 risk assessment matrix, there is a very high probability of an impending undesired occurrence (accident). The potential damage that might result to life, assets, environment and reputation of the company is such that cannot be over looked. The situation is one that calls for immediate response by management to ensure that appropriate measures are taken to control the above risk factors to “as law as reasonably practicable” (ALARP).
You are now required to complete the following activities:
Fill the attached workplace risk assessment form. (Appendix 1 and 2)
Complete the recommendations for hazard analysis and control report (Appendix 3)

Part B: Consultation and participation activity
In this assessment task, you are required to conduct a meeting with IT Manager and IT Officer. The role of duty holders i.e. IT Manager and IT Officer will be played by your colleagues. You will play the role of WHS Officer. The purpose of this meeting is to set up and maintain participation arrangements according to relevant WHS legislation and organisational standards.
IT Officer is a newly joined employee of the organisation and this will be the first meeting s/he will be attending.
IT Manager is with the organisation from last three years and one of the key high managerial agents in the organisation and a representative of IT department.
You must record the meeting minutes in Appendix 3.
Your meeting agenda should include the following:
Compliance with WHS legislation and standards
Organisational WHS policies and procedures
Commitment to comply with WHS legislation and organisational WHS policies and procedures
Defining the duty holders and their job roles to ensure compliance
Discuss budget and human resource requirements to comply with WHS legislation requirements
Providing recommendations for hazard analysis and control

Part C: Writing a recommendation for hazard analysis and control report
Write a report to present your recommendations (on the basis of the scenario discussed in this assessment task) to your IT Manager. The report should be written in 400-500 words.
You must use the template provided in Appendix 4 to complete this report.
The report should include the following criteria:
Pre-task planning
Adequate provision of personal protective equipments (PPES)
Policies and procedures required at the organisation
Training opportunities to employees
Rewards for maintaining safety at workplace
Provision of safety signs, pictures and slogans
Working equipments and infrastructures/installation area
Summary

Part D: Developing WHS procedures for ongoing hazard identification, and assessment and control of associated risks
This task requires you to develop procedures to comply with WHS legislation and organisational standards and requirements. The procedure should be written in 200-300 words.
You must use the template provided in Appendix 5 to complete this assessment activity.
The WHS procedure must include the following sections:
Purpose
Workplace rules and regulations
Workplace amenities
Workplace security
Workplace signage
Personal protective equipment

Part E: Develop and provide a WHS Induction and training program
In this assessment activity, you are required to develop a WHS Induction and training program for all workers in the hardware store and assembly/installation area.
You must use the template provided in Appendix 6 to develop the WHS Induction and training program.
You must provide it your WHS Manager to receive constructive feedback. The role of WHS Manager will be played by your trainer/assessor.
You are then required to provide this WHS Induction to the newly joined IT Officer.

WORKPLACE risk assessment FORM
Managing Workplace Health and Safety Risks procedure
Form WHS
Workplace:

Local Assessment No:
If applicable Assessment Date:
/ / Next Review Date: / /
(3 years maximum) Sign-off: (by a person with safety responsibility for the risk being assessed, for example: Head of Research Group, Workshop Supervisor, Academic Supervisor, Project Leader, Head of School, Director of Institute, School/Institute Manager)
Name: Position: Date: / /
What is being assessed? Describe the item, job, process, work arrangement including the location or facility

People involved in the assessment
Assessor(s):

Others consulted: (eg safety consultant, manager or supervisor, elected health and safety representative, people familiar with the hazards, other personnel exposed to risks)

Risk assessment Risk control plan/ WHS Action Plan/Procedures
Item Hazard description/ how exposed

(Refer Appendix 1) Risk control measure(s) in place
Evaluation of current policies/procedures/documentation

(If existing controls need improvement or new controls introduced, record under the Risk Control Plan columns) Current risk level (H/M/L/VL) with controls
(Refer App.2) Extra controls needed
to reduce risks to low or very low

(The item should not be used or the process started until the remaining ‘residual risk’
is L or VL) Person responsible Date extra controls to be done Date extra controls completed
1
2
3
4

* may be left blank if the current risk level with existing controls in place (‘residual risk’) is low or very

Appendix 1 – What hazards might be present? Select the correct ones.
Hazards: Potential to cause harm to people, property or the environment.
General Work Environment Health and Security Plant and equipment
Restricted access or egress Food Vehicles
Confined spaces Poisoning or contamination Mobile and fixed plant
Air-conditioning (thermal comfort) Communicable diseases Powered equipment
Air quality Intoxication Non-powered equipment
Lighting Dehydration Elevated Work Platforms
Noise (discomfort) Violence or assault Pressure vessel
Outdoors (sun exposure) Working alone or in isolation Laser (Class 2 or above)
Uneven walking surfaces Working in remote areas Traffic control
Working at height Bites / Stings Electrical
Ergonomic/manual handling Chemical Vibration
Workstation set up Hazardous chemicals Moving parts
Poor posture Explosives Acoustic / Noise
Lifting / Carrying Engineered nanomaterials Temperature / Weather effects
Pushing / Pulling Gas cylinders Heat
Reaching/overstretching Radiation Cold
Repetitive movement Ionising radiation Rain / Flood
Bending Ultraviolet (UV) radiation Wind
Eye strain Radiofrequency/microwave In or on water
Work design and management Infrared radiation Pressure (Diving / Altitude)
Fatigue Biological Lightning
Workload Microbiological Smoke
Mental stress Animal tissue / Fluids OTHER
Organisational change Human tissue / Fluids
Work violence or bullying Allergenic
Inexperienced or new personnel Other Biological
Volunteer or work experience safety
Children or U18 students

Appendix 2 – Risk Assessment Matrix

RISK SEVERITY/CONSEQUENCE
LIKELIHOOD CRITICAL
(may cause severe injury or fatality – more than two weeks lost time) MAJOR
(injury resulting in at least one day lost time) MINOR
(medical treatment injury – back to work) NEGLIGIBLE
(first aid treatment – no lost time)
VERY LIKELY
(exposure happens frequently)
High
High
Medium
Medium
LIKELY
(exposure but not frequently)
High
Medium
Medium
Low
UNLIKELY
(exposure could happen but only rarely)
Medium
Medium
Low
Very low
VERY UNLIKELY
(Exposure can happen but probably never will)
Medium
Low
Very low
Very low

Risk Priority Table
Risk priority Definitions of priority Time frame
High Situation critical, stop work immediately or consider cessation of work process.
Must be fixed today, consider short term and/or long term actions. Now
Medium Is very important, must be fixed urgently, consider short term and/or long term actions. 1 – 3 weeks
Low Is still important but can be dealt with through scheduled maintenance or similar type programming. However, if solution is quick and easy then fix it today. 1 – 3 Months
Very low Review and/or manage by routine processes Not applicable
Appendix 3- Meeting minutes template

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Appendix 4- Recommendations for hazard analysis and control report

Report

Appendix 5- Develop procedures for hazard analysis and control
Purpose
Write down the purpose of developing the WHS procedures.
Workplace rules and regulations

Note: A copy of the workplace rules and regulations is usually displayed at the reception.
Workplace amenities
All workers are to have good hygiene standards and clean up after themselves.
.
.
Workplace security
The IT Manager will, so far as reasonably practicable, secure the site by:
keeping the building secure during the project
erecting a fence to prevent unauthorised access
locking gates to the site outside normal hours of operation
< INSERT ANY OTHERS ACCORDING TO THE SCENARIO>.
Workers and contractors are expected to keep the site secure, for example by closing or locking gates.
Workplace signage
At a minimum, we will display the following signs on the entrance to the site:
the WHS officer’s name, contact details and after-hours telephone number
the location of the workplace office.
All signage will be clearly visible from outside .
Personal protective equipment
We will provide the personal protective equipment (PPE) to workers at the workplace, unless the PPE has been provided by another contractor.
The person providing the PPE must ensure that the PPE is:
suitable for the nature of the work and any hazard associated with the work
a suitable size and fit and reasonably comfortable for the worker who is to use or wear it
maintained, repaired or replaced so that it continues to minimise risk to the worker who uses it, including by:
ensuring it is clean and hygienic
ensuring it is in good working order
ensuring it is used or worn by the worker, so far as is reasonably practicable.
The person supplying the PPE must also:
provide workers with information, training and instruction in the proper use, wearing, storage and maintenance of PPE
ensure that any other person at the workplace (such as home owners, clients or inspectors) is appropriately provided with PPE to wear as required.
Workers must:
follow all instructions to wear and use PPE
take reasonable care of PPE
.

Appendix 6- Develop and provide a WHS Induction and training program
6.a. Worker induction and training program
The WHS officer will work with other employees to ensure a site-specific induction is provided for all workers before starting work. This induction is only limited to WHS area.
This induction must outline:
Requirement Completed Comments
the expectations outlined in this WHS Management System, including all policies and procedures
Yes No
the emergency meeting point
Yes No
the site rules
Yes No
the facilities
Yes No
any site-specific hazards
Yes No
high risk work activities
Yes No
.
Yes No

6.b. Worker training
Write in 50-100 words how WHS officer has provided the training.

Performance checklist criteria (Trainer/assessor to complete)
Did the student satisfactorily complete the following criteria? Yes No Comments
Completed the workplace risk assessment form and all its particulars
Completed risk assessment based upon the information provided.
Completed the risk control plan/ WHS action plan based upon the information provided
Involved other people such as
Assessor
Fellow students
Other consultants
For expert advice on WHS risk assessment plan
Clearly named the person responsible
Developed and provided consultative WHS activities to provide advice in relation to work health and safety issues
Feedback mechanisms discussed
Monitored processes for ensuring that workers have an opportunity to contribute feedback on health and safety issues
Documented outcomes of consultation to be communicated to workers
Developed and implemented the processes to make sure that responsibilities and duties are documented, and accountability processes are in place
Date of monitoring and extra control mentioned
Date of extra controls completed nominated
Potential hazards correctly identified from the information provided
Risk assessment matrix used to complete the risk management plan

Unit Assessment Result Sheet (UARS)
Assessment Task 2 – Unit Project (UP)
Student and Trainer/Assessor Details
Unit code BSBWHS501
Unit name Ensure a safe workplace
Outcome of Unit Assessment Task (UAT) First attempt:

Outcome (please make sure to tick the correct checkbox):
Satisfactory (S) or Not Satisfactory (NS)

Date: _______(day)/ _______(month)/ ____________(year)
Second attempt:

Outcome (please make sure to tick the correct checkbox):
Satisfactory (S) or Not Satisfactory (NS)
Date: _______(day)/ _______(month)/ ____________(year)
Feedback to Student First attempt:

Second attempt:

Student Declaration I declare that the answers I have provided are my own work. Where I have accessed information from other sources, I have provided references and or links to my sources.
I have kept a copy of all relevant notes and reference material that I used as part of my submission.
I have provided references for all sources where the information is not my own. I understand the consequences of falsifying documentation and plagiarism. I understand how the assessment is structured. I accept that all work I submit must be verifiable as my own.
I understand that if I disagree with the assessment outcome, I can appeal the assessment process, and either re-submit additional evidence undertake gap training and or have my submission re-assessed.
All appeal options have been explained to me.
Student Signature
Date
Trainer/Assessor Name
Trainer/Assessor Declaration I hold:
Vocational competencies at least to the level being delivered
Current relevant industry skills
Current knowledge and skills in VET, and undertake
Ongoing professional development in VET
I declare that I have conducted an assessment of this candidate’s submission. The assessment tasks were deemed current, sufficient, valid and reliable. I declare that I have conducted a fair, valid, reliable, and flexible assessment. I have provided feedback to the above-named candidate.
Trainer/Assessor Signature
Date
Office Use Only Outcome of Assessment has been entered onto the Student Management System on _________________ (insert date)
by (insert Name) __________________________________

Table of Contents
Table of Contents 2
UNIT Introduction 5
ABOUT THIS RESOURCE 5
ABOUT ASSESSMENT 6
Elements and Performance Criteria 8
Performance evidence and Knowledge evidence 10
knowledge evidence 10
performance evidence 10
Assessment Conditions 11
Pre-Requisites 11
Topic 1 – Establish and maintain a WHS management system in a work area 12
Locate, adapt, adopt and communicate WHS policies that clearly define the organisation’s commitment to complying with WHS legislation 13
COMMITMENT 13
planning 14
implementation 14
MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION 15
REVIEW AND IMPROVEMENT 15
Sources of information 16
CURRENT WHS/OHS LEGISLATION 17
REGULATIONS 18
CODES OF PRACTICE 18
Identify duty holders and define WHS responsibilities for all workplace personnel according to WHS legislation, policies, procedures and programs 20
Worker 20
PCBU 21
Multiple PCBUs 22
PCBU duty to consult 23
Officer 23
Duties of others 24
Managing hazards 24
Health and safety representatives 25
Health and safety committees 26
OTHER DUTY HOLDERs 26
Identify and approve financial and human resources required by the WHS management system (WHSMS) 27
Identifying resources needed 27
Human resources 27
Funding WHS initiatives 27
Approving WHS expenditure 28
Topic 2 – Establish and maintain effective and compliant participation arrangements for managing WHS in a work area 29
Work with workers and their representatives to set up, and maintain participation arrangements according to relevant WHS legislation 29
PARTICIPATIVE ARRANGEMENTS 29
Benefits of establishing participative arrangements 29
mechanisms 30
Providing feedback to PCBUs 31
Providing information to workers 31
Problems with participative arrangements 32
Appropriately resolve issues raised through participation and consultation arrangements according to relevant WHS legislation 33
Identify the WHS hazards or issues that need to be dealt with 33
Determine appropriate action 33
Specify objectives or performance measures 34
Monitor the program 34
Evaluate and review 34
Promptly provide information about the outcomes of participation and consultation to workers and ensure it is easy for them to access and understand 36
Consultation 36
Requirements to consult with workers 37
COMMUNICATING APPROPRIATELY 38
Ensuring accessibility of information 38
Communication in a timely manner 38
Topic 3 – Establish and maintain procedures for effectively identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks in a work area 39
Develop procedures for ongoing hazard identification, and assessment and control of associated risks 39
Dangerous occurrences 39
Identifying hazards 40
Developing procedures for identifying and reporting hazards 40
Preparing an overview of the work environment 41
Conducting formal workplace inspections 41
Managing hazards 43
Risk analysis 43
Assessing risk 44
The hierarchy of risk control 44
Include hazard identification at the planning, design and evaluation stages of any change in the workplace to ensure that new hazards are not created by the proposed changes and existing hazards are controlled 45
Planning, designing and evaluating changes 45
Develop and maintain procedures for selecting and implementing risk controls according to the hierarchy of control and WHS legislative requirements 46
Hierarchy of risk control 46
Types of controls 47
Identify inadequacies in existing risk controls according to the hierarchy of control and WHS legislative requirements, and promptly provide resources to enable implementation of new measures 48
Identify requirements for expert WHS advice, and request this advice as required 49
Using WHS experts 49
Topic 4 – Evaluate and maintain a WHS management system 50
Develop and provide a WHS induction and training program for all workers as part of the organisation’s training program 50
Providing workplace induction 50
ongoing training 51
Use a system for WHS recordkeeping to allow identification of patterns of occupational injury and disease in the organisation, and to maintain a record of WHS decisions made, including reasons for the decision 52
Measure and evaluate the WHSMS in line with the organisation’s quality systems framework 54
Measuring performance 54
Develop and implement improvements to the WHSMS to achieve organisational WHS objectives 55
Proactive response 55
Action plans 56
Ensure compliance with the WHS legislative framework so that, as a minimum, WHS legal requirements are achieved 57
Conducting regular audits 57
summary 59
References 60

UNIT Introduction
This resource covers the unit BSBWHS501 – Ensure a safe workplace.

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to establish, maintain and evaluate the organisation’s work health and safety (WHS) policies, procedures and programs in the relevant work area, according to WHS legislative requirements. It takes a systems approach and addresses compliance with relevant legislative requirements.

This unit applies to managers working in a range of contexts who have, or are likely to have responsibility for WHS as part of their broader management role. It is relevant for people with obligations under WHS legislation, for example persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBUs) or officers, as defined by relevant legislation.

NOTE: The terms ‘occupational health and safety’ (OHS) and ‘work health and safety’ (WHS) are equivalent and generally either can be used in the workplace. In jurisdictions where the Model WHS Legislation has not been implemented RTOs are advised to contextualise the unit of competency by referring to the existing State/Territory OHS legislative requirements.

No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.

ABOUT THIS RESOURCE
This resource brings together information to develop your knowledge about this unit. The information is designed to reflect the requirements of the unit and uses headings to makes it easier to follow.

Read through this resource to develop your knowledge in preparation for your assessment. You will be required to complete the assessment tools that are included in your program. At the back of the resource are a list of references you may find useful to review.

As a student it is important to extend your learning and to search out text books, internet sites, talk to people at work and read newspaper articles and journals which can provide additional learning material.

Your trainer may include additional information and provide activities, slide presentations, and assessments in class to support your learning.

ABOUT ASSESSMENT
Throughout your training we are committed to your learning by providing a training and assessment framework that ensures the knowledge gained through training is translated into practical on the job improvements.

You are going to be assessed for:
⦁ Your skills and knowledge using written and observation activities that apply to your workplace.
⦁ Your ability to apply your learning.
⦁ Your ability to recognise common principles and actively use these on the job.

You will receive an overall result of Competent or Not Yet Competent for the assessment of this unit. The assessment is a competency based assessment, which has no pass or fail. You are either competent or not yet competent. Not Yet Competent means that you still are in the process of understanding and acquiring the skills and knowledge required to be marked competent. The assessment process is made up of a number of assessment methods. You are required to achieve a satisfactory result in each of these to be deemed competent overall.

All of your assessment and training is provided as a positive learning tool. Your assessor will guide your learning and provide feedback on your responses to the assessment. For valid and reliable assessment of this unit, a range of assessment methods will be used to assess practical skills and knowledge.

Your assessment may be conducted through a combination of the following methods:
⦁ Written Activity
⦁ Case Study
⦁ Observation
⦁ Questions
⦁ Third Party Report

The assessment tool for this unit should be completed within the specified time period following the delivery of the unit. If you feel you are not yet ready for assessment, discuss this with your trainer and assessor.

To be successful in this unit you will need to relate your learning to your workplace. You may be required to demonstrate your skills and be observed by your assessor in your workplace environment. Some units provide for a simulated work environment and your trainer and assessor will outline the requirements in these instances.

Elements and Performance Criteria
1. Establish a WHS management system in a work area 1.1 Locate, adapt, adopt and communicate WHS policies that clearly define the organisation’s commitment to complying with WHS legislation
1.2 Identify duty holders  and define WHS responsibilities for all workplace personnel according to WHS legislation, policies, procedures and programs
1.3 Identify and approve financial and human resources required by the WHS management system (WHSMS)
2. Establish and maintain effective and compliant participation arrangements for managing WHS in a work area 2.1 Work with workers and their representatives to set up and maintain participation arrangements according to relevant WHS legislation
2.2 Appropriately resolve issues raised through participation and consultation arrangements according to relevant WHS legislation
2.3 Promptly provide information about the outcomes of participation and consultation to workers and ensure it is easy for them to access and understand
3. Establish and maintain procedures for effectively identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks in a work area 3.1 Develop procedures for ongoing hazard identification, and assessment and control of associated risks
3.2 Include hazard identification at the planning, design and evaluation stages of any change in the workplace to ensure that new hazards are not created by the proposed changes and existing hazards are controlled
3.3 Develop and maintain procedures for selecting and implementing risk controls according to the hierarchy of control and WHS legislative requirements
3.4 Identify inadequacies in existing risk controls according to the hierarchy of control and WHS legislative requirements, and promptly provide resources to enable implementation of new measures
3.5 Identify requirements for expert WHS advice, and request this advice as required

4. Evaluate and maintain a WHS management system 4.1 Develop and provide a WHS induction and training program for all workers as part of the organisation’s training program
4.2 Use a system for WHS recordkeeping  to allow identification of patterns of occupational injury and disease in the organisation, and to maintain a record of WHS decisions made, including reasons for the decision
4.3 Measure and evaluate the WHSMS in line with the organisation’s quality systems framework
4.4 Develop and implement improvements to the WHSMS to achieve organisational WHS objectives
4.5 Ensure compliance with the WHS legislative framework so that, as a minimum, WHS legal requirements are achieved

Performance evidence and Knowledge evidence
This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit.

knowledge evidence
To complete the unit requirements safely and effectively, the individual must:
⦁ Identify and detail relevant WHS Acts, regulations and codes of practice
⦁ Specify relevant WHS organisational policies, procedures, programs and practices
⦁ Explain hazard identification and risk-management processes
⦁ Describe the hierarchy of risk control and how it is applied in the workplace
⦁ Specify in-house and WHS legislative reporting requirements

performance evidence
Evidence of the ability to:
⦁ Establish, implement, maintain and evaluate a work health and safety (WHS) management system for a work area of an organisation in accordance with WHS legislation including policies, procedures and record keeping
⦁ Ensure organisational WHS compliance
⦁ Establish, implement, maintain and evaluate effective and compliant participation arrangements for managing WHS including identifying duty holders, identifying and approving the required resources and developing and implementing a training program
⦁ Establish, implement, maintain and evaluate procedures for effectively identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks using the hierarchy of risk control
⦁ Provide information and complete documentation for a WHS management system
⦁ Identify requirements for and request expert WHS advice

Note: If a specific volume or frequency is not stated, then evidence must be provided at least once.

Assessment Conditions
Assessment must be conducted in a safe environment where evidence gathered demonstrates consistent performance of typical activities experienced by individuals carrying out work health and safety duties in the workplace and include access to:
⦁ Organisational WHS policies and procedures
⦁ WHS legislation, regulations and codes of practice
⦁ Case studies and, where possible, real situations
⦁ Interaction with others

Assessors must satisfy NVR/AQTF assessor requirements.

Pre-Requisites
This unit must be assessed after the following pre-requisite unit:
There are no pre-requisites for this unit.

Topic 1 – Establish and maintain a WHS management system in a work area
Creating a safe work environment is one of the most important tasks for a manager. A safe workplace enables the employees to work comfortably without concerns for their own safety. A proactive approach addresses potential dangers before they become an issue. Get the entire staff involved in workplace safety issues. Working collectively increases the chances of a safe, productive work environment for all employees.
⦁ Step 1 – Assess the risks specific to the workplace. Each workplace holds its own risks and dangers based on the nature of the work, so a thorough assessment of the surroundings is key.
⦁ Step 2 – Create safety policies and procedures that address the identified risks for the workplace. Ensure that all employees receive training and have access to these policies and procedures.
⦁ Step 3 – Conduct background checks on potential employees to check for red flags that could threaten the safety of other employees.
⦁ Step 4 – Inspect the physical space of the workplace to identify dangers. Ensure that all lighting and safety equipment remain in good working order. Make necessary repairs to the facilities immediately.
⦁ Step 5 – Create a plan of action in case of an emergency. Consider the types of emergencies that may threaten the workplace. Practice the emergency response with the staff to ensure everyone understands the procedures.
⦁ Step 6 – Establish a procedure for visitors in the workplace. Restricting access without an escort, checking identification and requiring visitors to sign in are typical procedures.
⦁ Step 7 – Establish an environment that encourages open communication. Initiate a zero-tolerance policy for violence and discrimination to ensure all employees feel safe and free to express their opinions.

Locate, adapt, adopt and communicate WHS policies that clearly define the organisation’s commitment to complying with WHS legislation
WHS management is comprised of five principles that, if followed, will enable an organisation to locate, adapt, adopt and communicate WHS policies. These five general principles are:
⦁ Commitment
⦁ Planning
⦁ Implementation
⦁ Measurement and evaluation
⦁ Review and improvement

COMMITMENT
The leadership and commitment of the organisations management team is an important part of WHS management and is required to successfully implement a WHS policy.

The management team must be willing to participate in an initial review of the organisation’s current WHS position. They should also be involved in subsequent reviews of WHS. This will help to provide a clear picture of the organisation’s WHS performance over previous years, including:
⦁ Hot-spots, or areas in the organisation that have a higher incidence of injuries
⦁ Injury trends (for example, stress or hazardous manual tasks)
⦁ Organisational hazards and methods of risk assessment/control
⦁ Identification of gaps in current WHS management systems
⦁ Compliance with legislative requirements

planning
When planning WHS policies the first step is to assess the results of the WHS review Once assessed, management should plan realistic and measurable objectives and targets that fulfill the organisation’s corporate goals and vision. Plans should include:
⦁ Any resources (financial and human) allocated to achieving the objectives and targets
⦁ Strategies for informing workers when the organisation’s WHS policies are implemented or improved
⦁ Particulars of any risk management or WHS audit systems that are in place or will be implemented
⦁ The activities necessary to bring the organisation to full compliance with all relevant legislation
⦁ Procedures for regularly reviewing the WHS policies
⦁ Consultation arrangements for developing or varying WHS policies to fully inform workers and ensure that their views are represented

implementation
The effectiveness of a WHS policy will depend on how successfully it has been implemented and integrated into the organisation’s daily business operations.

Communication and consultation strategies should be put in place so that all workers understand their responsibilities and the necessity of implementing an effective WHS policy. These strategies may include:
⦁ Information meetings
⦁ Preparing brochures or booklets detailing the health and safety workplace arrangements
⦁ Including information on any internal newsletters or information emails circulated to workers
⦁ Placing information on bulletin boards or posting signs in prominent areas of the building
⦁ Consultative forums involving workers, worker representatives and unions

MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION
Once a WHS policy is put in place; it is necessary to measure and evaluate performance so the organisation can monitor the effectiveness of it, and make adjustments to ensure a process of continuous improvement.

Procedures for measurement and evaluation of the policy should be developed in the planning stage. These procedures should provide information on:
⦁ Persons responsible for monitoring and evaluation
⦁ Systems developed for measuring WHS performance
⦁ Testing methods specific to your organisation – firedrills, evacuation drills, etc.
⦁ Audit tools to be used, such as WHS-specific audit tools or internally developed audit methods

REVIEW AND IMPROVEMENT
It is important to regularly review an organisation’s WHS policies. With changes in work systems, legislation, technology, organisational structure, chemicals, machinery and plant, it is vital that PCBUs remain aware of changes in their work environment and ensure that the health and safety of workers are not compromised as a result of these changes.

It is easy to become complacent following the introduction of a WHS policy. This is the reason ongoing review and improvement is so important—to ensure that WHS performance is continuously improved wherever possible.

Review of WHS policies may be carried out at any stage following integration with your core business activities, and can take many forms. For example:
⦁ A full annual audit of the effectiveness of the system
⦁ Regular monthly reviews following analysis of objectives, targets and performance indicators
⦁ A review following hazard inspections
⦁ During audit of a particular group, division or branch
⦁ As a feedback mechanism from workers following training
⦁ Following an investigation into an incident or accident
⦁ Any instances of non-compliance with legislative requirements
⦁ Changes necessary as a result of the introduction of new technology, plant, equipment, chemicals or work practices

Sources of information
The above gives you a guide to information about WHS.

You could also refer to:
⦁ The Work Health and Safety Act 2011
⦁ Approved codes of practice
⦁ Agency-specific documents which detail appropriate practices and procedures for the effective management of WHS at the workplace, for example:
⦁ WHS policies, procedures and agreements
⦁ WHS hazard policies and procedures, including prevention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of body stressing or manual task injuries
⦁ Publications produced by Comcare which may be relevant to your requirements availble at www.comcare.gov.au
⦁ Guidance and fact sheets produced by Safe Work Australia which may be relevant to your requirements available at www. safeworkaustralia.gov.au
⦁ AS/NZS 4801:2001 Occupational Health and Safety Management systems—specification with guidance for use
⦁ AS/NZS 4804:2001 Occupational Health and Safety Management systems—general guidelines and principles, systems and supporting techniques
⦁ Your organisation’s WHS Manager and/or Advisor
⦁ Your organisation’s health and safety policies and procedures

– “The Management Of Work Health And Safety In The Commonwealth.” Web. 21 May. 2015 < https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/globalstarenterprises.com/staff/documents/WHS/Management_WHS_in_Comm_jurisdiction.pdf >.

CURRENT WHS/OHS LEGISLATION

Each State/Territory has a principal WHS/OHS Act, setting out the legal requirements for ensuring workplaces are safe and healthy places. The key principle in each principal Act is the employer’s responsibility known as the employer’s “duty of care”. This is the strict legal duty of the employer to provide a safe and healthy place of work for employees and others.

Further requirements in each principal Act spell out the duties and rights of workers, such as the duty to take care of one’s own health and safety and that of others, and rights of worker participation in matters of health and safety via WHS/OHS representatives and WHS/OHS committees. Other groups such as suppliers and manufacturers also have duties in relation to WHS/OHS.

Each State/Territory may also have smaller, more specialised Acts dealing with specific aspects of WHS/OHS such as dangerous goods. Acts may contain site‐specific requirements (permit‐to‐operate regimes) or relate to particular equipment, products or services.

The following is a representative listing of some relevant State WHS/OHS legislation in force at the current time (this will change with harmonisation). The complete list of Acts applicable to an organisation must be based on the operations of the organisation and the scope of its activities, products and/or services. Always check further with your state and commonwealth bodies if you are unsure. It is important to note that the name of the Act or Regulation coupled with the year it was enacted is the total name of the relevant document, so you should always include the year date, to ensure that it is the correct one.
STATE & COMMONWEALTH OHS
STATUTES & REGULATIONS NSW:
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011
ACT:
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 QLD:
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011
TAS:
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 WA:
Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 and Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996
SA:
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 NT:
Work Health and Safety Act 2011
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011
VIC:
Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004
Occupational Health and Safety Regulation 2007
REGULATIONS
General WHS/OHS Regulations contain provisions that are designed to help extract the duties and responsibilities outlined in the principal State/Territory WHS/OHS Acts. Many Regulations adopt a performance‐based approach but prescribe specific detailed controls for highly hazardous areas.

Some regulations are activity‐specific such as those covering work in confined spaces. Others may be compliance regimes for specific hazards such as noise or specific to particular processes. Other regulations may be specific to particular industries.

CODES OF PRACTICE
An Approved Code of Practice is an expert practical guide for achieving the standard of safety required by WHS/OHS legislation for a particular area of work. A Code of Practice provides further information on the duties referred to in the Acts and supplementary information on safe work practices, on how employers may meet safety requirements and fulfil their duty of care to workers. Codes of Practice spell out the duties of employers and other groups in controlling risks associated with specific hazards.

Workers/supervisors must be familiar with the content of Approved Codes of Practice that are applicable to their work area and should be able to accurately explain their implications to the workgroup.

Many Codes of Practice have been or are currently being redrafted through Safe Work Australia
(https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA) as Draft Model Codes of Practice and can be viewed on the website.

Codes of Practice are not legally enforceable in themselves, but can be used as evidence in court to show whether or not an employer has satisfied an OHS Act or Regulation or the employer’s common law duty of care.

Codes of Practice:
⦁ Provide practical guidance
⦁ Should be followed unless another solution achieves the same or better results
⦁ May be used in support of preventive and controlling measures

Codes of Practice, like Regulations, are written in conjunction with the OHS legislation (and Regulations) to support and enable workers to gain an understanding and work instructions that allow them to recognise the WHS/OHS requirements in a particular area of their work.

Codes of Practice are specific individual work instructions or advice that give clear definitions and instructions of how an area of work should be treated, managed or performed. Many of these Codes are written to specific industries where health and safety at work are of special concern, such as the construction, mining, rural and manufacturing industries. There are, however, also a number of Codes written which could be considered “generic” because they are used across many or all industries, such as the Queensland Codes of Practice for First Aid 2004 and Children and Young Workers 2006.

Identify duty holders and define WHS responsibilities for all workplace personnel according to WHS legislation, policies, procedures and programs

Duties under the WHS Act are non-transferable. A person may have more than one duty, and more than one person can have the same duty. However, in that case, each person must discharge the duty to the extent the person has the capacity to influence and control the matter (or would have that capacity but for an agreement or arrangement purporting to limit or remove that capacity).

– ” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

Duties imposed on a worker to ensure health or safety requires the worker:
⦁ To eliminate risks to health and safety, so far as is reasonably practicable, and
⦁ If it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate risks to health and safety, to minimise those risks so far as is reasonably practicable

The following section relates to the definitions and responsibilities of duty holders and workplace personnel. The information below is from the comcare website and is the Australian Governments definitions of the Roles and Responsibilities of WHS duty holders.
Worker

WHS practitioners are workers. The WHS Act adopts a broad definition of ‘worker’ to recognise the changing nature of work relationships and to ensure health and safety protection is extended to all types of workers. A worker includes:
⦁ Employees
⦁ Independent contractors
⦁ Sub-contractors
⦁ Outworkers e.g. Home based
⦁ Apprentices
⦁ Work experience students
⦁ Trainees
⦁ Volunteers who work in employment like settings

Volunteer means a person who is acting on a voluntary basis (irrespective of whether they receive out-of-pocket expenses):
⦁ The WHS Act specifically protects volunteers in their capacity as workers
⦁ Ensures that volunteers are not discouraged from participating in community-based activities
⦁ A ‘volunteer association’ (as defined) is not treated as a business or undertaking

Workers must:
⦁ Take reasonable care of own health and safety
⦁ Take reasonable care that their acts or omissions do not adversely affect the health and safety of other persons
⦁ Comply, so far as the worker is reasonably able, with any reasonable instruction given by a person conducting a business or undertaking to allow the person conducting the business or undertaking to comply with the WHS Act
⦁ Cooperate with any reasonable policy or procedure of the person conducting the business or undertaking which relates to work health or safety and that has been notified to workers

-” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

PCBU

The principal duty holder is a ‘person conducting a business or undertaking’ and has replaced the term ‘employer’. PCBUs include the Commonwealth, Commonwealth Authorities, non-Commonwealth licensees, principal contractors, and will, in some cases, necessitate an analysis to understand who is a PCBU in a particular factual context under the WHS laws.

The duty of a person conducting a business or undertaking is probably the most significant conceptual change from the majority of previous OHS Acts. For the public sector, it means that every activity is captured, both policy and operational.

This change is aimed at ensuring that the WHS Act coverage extends beyond the traditional employer/employee relationship to include new and evolving work arrangements.
PCBU replaces current duties of:
⦁ Employer (to employees)
⦁ Employer conducting business or undertaking (to others)
⦁ Self-employed person (to others)
⦁ The WHS act also places specific upstream duties on PCBU’s who carry out specific activities:
⦁ Persons with management or control of a workplace/fixtures, fittings and plant
⦁ Designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers and PCBU’s that install construct or commission plant or structures
⦁ Duties extend to any PCBU who is contributing to work has a duty of care. This can be more than one duty in relation to specific activities
⦁ ‘Volunteer association’ (as defined) is not treated as a business or undertaking

-” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

Multiple PCBUs

A PCBU retains overall responsibility for workplace health and safety even if they contract out activities to others under their duty of care obligations. The WHS Act provides that a person can have more than one duty by virtue of being in more than one class of duty holder and that more than one person can concurrently owe the same duty.

If more than one person has a duty of care for same matter, then each person:
⦁ Retain responsibility for their duty in relation to the matter
⦁ Must discharge their duty to the extent the matter is within the person’s capacity to influence or control
⦁ Must consult, cooperate and coordinate activities with all other persons who have a duty in relation to the same matter

-” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

PCBU duty to consult

A PCBU, through its officers, has a duty under the WHS Act to consult with workers at all levels of the business. Senior leaders and managers should promote and foster open lines of communication and consultation with workers. This can be achieved by:
⦁ Creating and nurturing joint partnerships with:
⦁ Workplace work groups
⦁ HSRs and employee representatives
⦁ Other involved PCBUs
⦁ Ensuring effective consultation processes are built into the business through its systems, policies and procedures
⦁ Engage with workers by being visible and open to feedback and ideas

-” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

Officer

An officer is a senior executive who makes, or participates in making, decisions that affect the whole, or a substantial part, of a business or undertaking. Officers have a duty to be proactive and continuously ensure that the business or undertaking complies with relevant duties and obligations.

The scope of an officers’ duty is directly related to the influential nature of their position. A high standard requires persistent examination and care to ensure that the resources and systems of the business or undertaking are adequate to comply with the duty of care required under the WHS Act. This also requires officers to ensure that delegations are working effectively. Where the officer relies on the expertise of a manager or other person, that expertise must be verified, and the reliance must be reasonable.

The intention of the officers’ duty is to ensure engagement and leadership by officers in WHS management, better providing for sustainability and improvement in WHS performance.

Officers of PCBUs that have a duty or obligation under the WHS Act must exercise ‘due diligence’ to ensure that the person conducting a business or undertaking complies with that duty or obligation.

-” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

Duties of others

All other persons at a workplace, such as visitors or customers, have health and safety duties. They include:
⦁ Taking reasonable care of their own health and safety at the workplace, and ensuring that their acts or omissions do not adversely affect the health and safety of others at the workplace.
⦁ Complying, so far as they are reasonably able to, with any reasonable instruction that is given by the PCBU to allow the PCBU to comply with the WHS laws.

-” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

Managing hazards
Workplace hazards exist in all workplaces and organisations. The WHS Act and regulations require PCBUs to implement risk management practices, including systems to identify hazards, and then assess and eliminate or control the risks arising from these hazards.

A hazard is an object or situation that has the potential to cause harm, resulting in injury, illness or damage to property. A risk is the likelihood that a hazard may cause harm. Everyone has responsibility for reporting hazards they identify at work, and this is critical for maintaining a healthy and safe workplace.

It may be your responsibility to implement and monitor procedures for identifying hazards and assessing risks. Every organisation will have procedures in place to identify and monitor its workplace hazards and risks. It is very important that you adhere to these organisational procedures. This will help to ensure procedures for hazard identification and risk control are known and complied with within your workplace

Non-compliance may result in harm or permanent injury to workers or visitors to the workplace. For example, carpet or lino that has come unstuck may cause someone to trip; chemical spills that remain on a factory floor may cause a fall; or a poorly maintained air-conditioner may result in a polluted environment that causes an asthma attack.

Hazards and risks can be avoided with:
⦁ A comprehensive maintenance program
⦁ An effective overall WHS management system
⦁ Regular safety audits
⦁ Purchasing and using equipment and machinery that meets recognised safety standards
⦁ A system to evaluate and review risk management practices
⦁ An effective process that enables all workers to report hazards as they are identified in the workplace

Health and safety representatives
The role of health and safety representatives (HSRs) is to consult with workers through informal and formal discussions at worker meetings and via surveys to identify WHS issues that need to be resolved. HSRs provide information to managers, supervisors and workers. They usually represent workers in relation to WHS issues and may have authority in some cases. HSRs need to have a wide range of WHS knowledge, including:
⦁ The organisation’s current requirements and obligations in accordance with legislation, regulation and codes of practice
⦁ How to conduct WHS induction
⦁ The types of incidents that are notifiable
⦁ Requirements for consultation in the workplace
⦁ How to advise on safe work practices
⦁ The process for WHS audits and accident investigations


All organisations are required to ensure that WHS issues are dealt with promptly and in accordance with the law. The legislation does not require all organisations to have an HSR, however, an HSR must be appointed if requested.

Health and safety committees
Health and safety committees (HSCs) bring together management and workers to focus on WHS issues. Under the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth), an HSC must be set up within two months of being requested to do so by an HSR or five or more workers in the workplace.

This legislation also requires an HSC to meet every three months and at any reasonable time if requested by at least half of the committee members. PCBUs must allow each committee member to attend a scheduled meeting.
⦁ HSCS play an important role in an organisation by:
⦁ Facilitating cooperation between the PCBU and workers on health and safety
⦁ Discussing identified WHS problems
⦁ Consulting with workers and making recommendations aimed at improving health and safety in the workplace
⦁ Assisting in developing health and safety standards, rules and procedures
⦁ Monitoring and reporting on WHS performance (including compliance with legislation and workplace policies and procedures)

OTHER DUTY HOLDERs
Other duty holders could include but not limited to:
⦁ Management
⦁ Health and Safety Inspectors
⦁ Safety Officer
⦁ Fire Warden
⦁ Security Officers

Identify and approve financial and human resources required by the WHS management system (WHSMS)
To ensure that you are compliant with WHS legislation and regulations, a planned, systematic and well-documented WHS management system must be in place. The system must be appropriate for the business and its activities and must enable relevant workplace information and data to be examined to identify hazards and assess and control risks.

Identifying resources needed
As a health and safety officer, you will need to consult with your team and other stakeholders to determine their priorities for resources.

Human resources
People are the most important resource for any WHS action, after all, WHS is about maintaining the safety of people in the workplace. Implementing WHS initiatives and systems requires both financial support and human resources. Some of the WHS human resources that may be required in an organisation will include:
⦁ The health and safety committee (with regard to WHS legislation and regulations)
⦁ Specialist health and safety representatives
⦁ Emergency wardens
⦁ First-aid officers
⦁ Compliance officers or auditors
⦁ Managers, supervisors and workers

Funding WHS initiatives
To implement a WHS system can be implemented and maintained without adequate financial support. For example, finances are needed for the employment and salary of a health and safety officer, to fund training courses, to purchase physical WHS resources (such as personal protective equipment) or for upgrading equipment.

Sufficient money must be allocated to allow for these ongoing costs, as well as an allowance for unforeseen WHS events during the budget period.
Approving WHS expenditure
Depending on the organisation, most resourcing decisions require the approval of a person with the authority to approval financial expenditure. An approval generally requires you to present a detailed cost breakdown of exactly what the program entails and the expected outcomes of implementation.

When determining whether or not to approve an initiative, you will need to consider the following:
⦁ Will this initiative assist the organisation in meeting statutory requirements?
⦁ Will this initiative assist the organisation in meeting its strategic WHS objectives?
⦁ Are all the costs associated with planning, implementing and evaluating accounted for?
⦁ What benefits will the organisation gain from this initiative?

Topic 2 – Establish and maintain effective and compliant participation arrangements for managing WHS in a work area
Work with workers and their representatives to set up, and maintain participation arrangements according to relevant WHS legislation
Work health and safety laws require PCBUs to consult with workers regarding health, safety and welfare issues at work. Workers also have a right to be involved in health and safety matters and may elect to be represented by a health and safety representative (HSR) for their work group. Consultation is vital and is required by law on any matters of WHS in any organisation.

PARTICIPATIVE ARRANGEMENTS
Developing and implementing health and safety policies and procedures requires the support of workers. You will be more likely to have workers participate in implementing any new initiatives if they have been consulted and feel their opinion has been valued.

When identifying health and safety issues workers are very important. The become aware of potential hazards because they are performing these tasks every day. Effective participation from all workes can bring potential hazards and solutions for these to the attention of management

Benefits of establishing participative arrangements
A healthier work environment and improved morale and productivity can be achieved when the PCBU and workers collaborate on health and safety issues. A strong health and safety culture is one where workers believe their leaders are committed to health and safety and that any input workers have into the development or review of systems, policies and procedures is valued and followed. participative arrangements benefits WHS/OHS in many ways.

These include:
⦁ It helps PCBUs to become more aware of hazards and health and safety issues experienced by workers
⦁ It improves management decisions regarding health and safety
⦁ It enables workers to provide suggestions about how to address health and safety problems and contribute to determining how the work can be done safely
⦁ It may result in greater PCBU and worker commitment to health and safety and increased ownership of work outcomes
⦁ It promotes increased openness, respect and trust between management and workers through developing an understanding of each other’s points of view
⦁ It may help reduce injury and disease because of timely intervention

mechanisms
Health and safety consultation is a two-way process. Workers need a provide feedback regarding health and safety matters, and they need to have the tools and methods in which to do this. You must ensure you provide health and safety updates to workers at all times and within acceptable timeframes. For consultation to be truly participative, you need to consider each of the following points:
⦁ The worker location and how they can contribute to health and safety issues; for example, whether they are on site, in a remote location or working from a home office
⦁ The nature of the work; for example, whether it is flexible, inflexible or systematic
⦁ The times workers are available; for example, during business hours, on shift work or rosters
⦁ The diversity of workers; for example, intellectual and physical capabilities, or domestic responsibilities

You will need to establish monitor systems to ensure you monitor consultative arrangements to see how they may be improved; this is vital to continuous improvement in your organisation. You can achieve this by asking workers for feedback and discussing the ways in which the arrangements can be improved. You may also seek advice from a health and safety specialist to determine whether your arrangements are as effective as possible.

Providing feedback to PCBUs
Workers need to provide feedback to PCBU’s on health and safety matters and below is an example of the types of issues and how they can be reported.
⦁ Identify or assess hazards or risks – Tell the HSR
⦁ Make suggestions about how to control risks – Tell the health and safety officer
⦁ Provide suggestions for resolving health and safety issues – Include the issue on the agenda for the next health and safety meeting
⦁ Write a complaint or raise an issue and place it in the suggestion box – Discuss the issue at a staff meeting
⦁ Propose changes to the workplace to improve their health and safety – Arrange a toolbox meeting

Providing information to workers
Establishing and maintaining communication between management, HSRs, health and safety officers, committees and workers is crucial. Below are some of the methods that can be used to provide workers with information:
⦁ Regular meetings with HSRs and HSC members
⦁ Regular workplace inspections and safety audits
⦁ Hazard identification and risk assessments
⦁ Health and safety issues on the agenda for every staff meeting
⦁ Regular consultation with the health and safety officer
⦁ Intranet notification system for WHS issues
⦁ Suggestion box
⦁ Health and safety signage and notices throughout workplace
⦁ Formal health and safety issue resolution processes
Problems with participative arrangements
Just because your organisation has put in place health and safety participative arrangements, it does not mean they will be effective. The common failures of participative arrangements include:
⦁ A strong legislative focus without consideration for workplace circumstances and culture
⦁ A lack of PCBU commitment to health and safety consultation
⦁ Insufficient management capacity to adopt and support appropriate participative arrangements
⦁ A lack of integration with other systems in the organisation

Appropriately resolve issues raised through participation and consultation arrangements according to relevant WHS legislation
Once the health and safety issues have been raised through the use of participative arrangements and consultations you will need to appropriately resolve them. These resolution must be done according to relevant WHS legislations. In this section we will go through the steps that will need to be take in order to resolve any issues.

Identify the WHS hazards or issues that need to be dealt with
The hazards or issues need to be established and clearly defined. They should be considered in the following terms:
⦁ Potential outcomes for harm
⦁ The context of the workplace (ie people, plant, substances, the systems or work activities in place etc)
⦁ Current processes in place
⦁ Technology and resources available

Determine appropriate action
Consider what needs to be done in order to manage the identified issues. This could include:
⦁ Changes to the work system, processes or methods
⦁ Information and training
⦁ Risk management strategies, e.g., Manual handling, noise, hazardous substances
⦁ Resources to be provided
⦁ Researching new technology
⦁ The role and responsibilities of involved parties
⦁ Supervising and reviewing the program

Specify objectives or performance measures
OHS programs should specify objectives in order to determine their success. Objectives should be specific, measurable and achievable. They should also make reference to time, cost and quality requirements where applicable.

Monitor the program
Programs should be reviewed at the end of the stated time frame, however it is usually necessary to monitor the program on an ongoing basis to enable problems to be dealt with as they arise, or modifications to be made if required. For example, additional resources may need to be allocated, a certain type of training may be required, new information or legislation may affect current actions, etc.

Mechanisms should be established to enable employees and supervisors to express their concerns about any aspect of the program. The WHS committee and/or WHS representative should be involved in this process to strengthen consultation and commitment.

Evaluate and review
Programs must be flexible. Once in place they must be reviewed to ensure their objectives are being met in effectively promoting health and safety in the workplace.

The WHS committee representative should have a role in the process of review and evaluation. They can then make recommendations to management about what should be done in the future to enable continual improvement or take corrective action. This should be done with direct reference to the stated program objectives or performance measures.

One method of evaluating the program could be for the WHS committee representative to survey employees and supervisors about the effectiveness of the program at the end of a designated period.

If the program is successful and a decision is made to continue with it on a permanent basis, periodic review is important. Changes in technology, legislation and work systems may result in improved prevention and control strategies.

In order for your organisation and yourself to establish a suitable Health and Safety management system, it is important that you and your staff are fully aware of the requirements for Occupation Health and Safety, Industry Code of Practice and the Standard Operating Procedures which are set by your organisation and by the government in general.

Promptly provide information about the outcomes of participation and consultation to workers and ensure it is easy for them to access and understand
Consultation
Consultation is defined in the Workplace Health and Safety Act/Occupational Health and Safety Act as the sharing of relevant information on occupational health and safety where employees are given the opportunity to express their views and contribute in a timely fashion to resolution of workplace health and safety issues.

Consultation means that employees’ views are valued and taken into account by the business. Consultation needs to be a two-way communication that allows for employees to contribute to the decision-making which affects their health, safety and welfare. Consultation is not the same as negotiation.

Employers must consult with their employees in the following situations:
⦁ When determining how the consultation process will take place
⦁ In the assessment of risks and the review of risk assessments previously conducted
⦁ When making decisions on the control of WHS/OHS risks in the workplace
⦁ during the introduction or change of procedures used for monitoring risks, for example, health surveillance
⦁ When making decisions about the adequacy of welfare facilities
⦁ When proposed changes are made to premises, work methods, plant or substances which may affect the health, safety or welfare of employees at work
⦁ When making decisions about consultation procedures
⦁ As prescribed by the regulations from time to time

– “Managing workplace hazards, and consultation in the workplace.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .

Consultation provides an opportunity to share with other workers information and participate in meaningful discussion on work health and safety matters. Using all staff members and their skills and knowledge makes for a safer and healthier workplaces, as well as better decision-making.

Requirements to consult with workers
There are certain circumstances in which you must consult with workers on all occasions including when:
⦁ Undertaking risk management activities
⦁ Proposing changes that may affect workers
⦁ Making decisions about any work health and safety procedures
⦁ The adequacy of facilities for the welfare of workers

The ACT lists a variety of circumstances in which you MUST consult. Under the Act it states that:
A person conducting a business or undertaking must consult with workers when:
⦁ Identifying hazards and assessing risks arising from the work carried out or to be carried out
⦁ Making decisions about ways to eliminate or minimise those risks
⦁ Making decisions about the adequacy of facilities for the welfare of workersProposing changes that may affect the health or safety of your workers, and
⦁ Making decisions about procedures for consulting with workers; resolving health or safety issues; monitoring health of your workers; monitoring the conditions at the workplace and providing information and training for your workers

However, it may be useful to also consult workers about matters that are not listed above, for example when conducting investigations into incidents or ‘near misses’.

Regular consultation is better than consulting on a case-by-case basis only as issues arise because it allows you to identify and fix potential problems early.

-“Requirements To Consult With Workers.” Web. 21/05/2015.

COMMUNICATING APPROPRIATELY
When communicating the outcomes of health and safety consultation, consider the specific needs of individuals and groups within the workplace. Before you communicate health and safety information, ask the following questions:
⦁ What is the purpose of the communication?
⦁ What outcome am I trying to achieve with the communication?
⦁ What are the information requirements of the audience (for example, what do they already know and what do they need to know)?
⦁ What format will be best received by the audience?
⦁ What diversity exists in the area? Do I need to consider providing communication in a language other than English? Do I need to provide the communication verbally and in written form, or use diagrams and pictures?
⦁ Does the communication need to be supported by appropriate workplace signage or warning signs?

Ensuring accessibility of information
Health and safety information should be in a format that is accessible to all those who need it. You should ask yourself the following questions in order to determine if all workers have equal access to information:
⦁ Does everyone have access to the Internet or an intranet?
⦁ Can everyone use email?
⦁ Do remote, and home-based workers have special requirements?
⦁ Are there any casual or contract workers who may be affected?
⦁ Do any workers have language barriers or diverse levels of understanding?

Communication in a timely manner
You should ensure you provide health and safety information when workers are more likely to absorb the information and respond appropriately. When a matter requires prompt and immediate action, such as following a dangerous incident, emergency communications systems should provide information directly to each affected person. Information of a less urgent nature, such as outcomes of a recent committee meeting can be communicated to recipients at regular intervals via the organisation’s standard reporting procedures.
Topic 3 – Establish and maintain procedures for effectively identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks in a work area
Develop procedures for ongoing hazard identification, and assessment and control of associated risks
Every industry has specific job-related hazards. For example, there are potential hazards when scuba-diving, spray painting, working in a mine, working in a hospital, serving food in a restaurant or working in an office. For this reason, each industry has legally enforceable regulations relating to its particular needs and hazards. Codes of practice provide advice on how to meet regulations. Many codes of practice are relevant to all organisations, such as:
⦁ First aid (accessing a first-aid kit and appointing first-aid officers)
⦁ Noise levels in the workplace
⦁ Manual handling
⦁ Storing and handling dangerous goods
⦁ Hazardous substances
⦁ Cash in transit
⦁ Air quality
⦁ Ultraviolet radiation exposure from sunshine

Dangerous occurrences
The PCBU must report any dangerous occurrence immediately to the health and safety regulator in their state or territory. A dangerous occurrence, also known as a near-miss, is a situation where there is, or could have been, an immediate and significant risk to any person in the workplace. There does not need to be any injury or damage for an event to be considered a dangerous occurrence.

Some examples of near-misses or dangerous occurrences include:
⦁ The collapse or overturn of industrial lifting equipment
⦁ The collapse or partial collapse of a wall, floor, ceiling or building
⦁ An explosion, fire or escape of any hazardous substance such as gas or chemicals
⦁ An electrical short circuit, malfunction or explosion
⦁ A flood, rock fall, or ground collapse

Identifying hazards
PCBUs have a legal responsibility to identify and control workplace hazards, either by eliminating the hazard or, by minimising the hazard’s effects. When hazards are identified, you can take steps to minimise any risk from the hazard, making the workplace safer.

A hazard is defined as anything that may cause harm, injury or ill health to any person in the workplace. Identifying hazards is the first step in the risk management process. To ensure the process of hazard identification is accurate and comprehensive, it should be carried out as a single task and not in conjunction with, other tasks.

It is absolutely vital that you consider hazards that may not be obvious; for example, sitting in the same position carrying out the same task for an extended period of time can cause occupational overuse syndrome; bullying in the workplace can cause poor staff morale and illness; and staff illness may be the sign of poor air quality in the work environment.

Developing procedures for identifying and reporting hazards
Procedures for identifying and reporting hazards should include details about the processes the PCBU, and workers should follow. Hazard reporting forms should be available to all workers and should be located in a place that all workers have access to.

Worker reports are one of the most effective ways to identify hazards. Workers have a legal responsibility to report any identified hazards to the PCBU who is legally required to take corrective action on those reports. There are no alternatives to this situation; it is the law, and each worker should play their part in assisting to maintain a safe work environment. There are also many other ways that you can identify hazards, including:
⦁ Regular workplace inspections
⦁ Results of accident investigations
⦁ Evaluating reasons for poor quality outputs
⦁ Industry information bulletins
⦁ Reports from customers or visitors to the workplace

Preparing an overview of the work environment
If you are responsible for identifying hazards, you become familiar with the work environment. You need a good overview of the team’s duties, work practices and procedures, the equipment they use and the work environment. You might need to ask the following questions in order to become familiar:
⦁ Which parts of the work environment move?
⦁ What substances are used?
⦁ What equipment is used?
⦁ Is there anything that you or others do that could be hazardous?
⦁ Do work procedure shortcuts follow all safety procedures?
⦁ Could anyone be hurt by modifications that have been made to tools or equipment?
⦁ Does everyone still take as much care with workplace practices and procedures as they did when they first started in the workplace?
⦁ What happens when cleaning, maintenance or repairs are done?
⦁ Is there anyone inexperienced or untrained working in the team?

Conducting formal workplace inspections
Management, HSRs or members of the HSC may carry out inspections by performing a walk-through survey. This involves walking through a work site to gather information about the work team and their work practices.

Creating checklists that are tailored to specific work environments can help provide a structure for collecting detailed information on equipment, processes and work areas for evidence of potential problems. Other sources of information to aid hazard identification may include:
⦁ Reports and compensation claims – Reports about equipment failure, accidents and dangerous incident (near miss) reports, as well as compensation claims, may help you to determine workplace problems such as broken equipment, excessive noise, poor air quality, poor safety signage or lack of safety instructions.
⦁ Undertaking a job safety analysis – A job safety analysis (JSA) is a comprehensive tool used to identify each part of a work process to identify potential hazards and evaluate appropriate control measures. Each task should be separated into its component parts to identify any potential hazards; for example, a forklift operator drives the forklift across a warehouse, unloads items from the back of a tray truck and moves them to an overhead storage rack.
⦁ Brainstorming – Brainstorming is the process of conducting group meetings with people who are familiar with the operation of the area under review. Encourage workers to provide details of any hazards they are aware of. The process must be non-threatening, with all suggestions listened to respectfully. Record all information relating to hazards and sort the results into priority order.
⦁ Industry associations – WHS is often raised at industry association meetings or during informal discussions before or after meetings. You may gain useful information by attending such meetings. Notes from meetings are often made available to the general public through bulletins and safety updates.
⦁ Manufacturers’ manuals – Manufacturers’ instruction books and safety data sheets (SDSs) provide advice and warnings regarding WHS hazards. It is important to ensure all instructions are understood and followed by all workers. Manufacturers’ information, including SDSs, should be reviewed to ensure all equipment is the safest available, and there are no hidden hazards.

Managing hazards
Procedures for managing hazards usually include:
⦁ Setting guidelines for identifying and reporting hazards
⦁ Developing processes for assessing and controlling risks in the workplace
⦁ Providing training for all workers
⦁ Allocating resources to risk assessment and control activities
⦁ Regularly monitoring and reviewing hazard identification and reporting procedures

Risk analysis
Risk analysis is a key step in the process of managing workplace hazards. Risk analysis enables the organisation to determine what is needed to control risks.

Risk analysis involves:
⦁ Identifying the source of any identified risks
⦁ Identifying the impact of risks on the workplace environment
⦁ Considering the likelihood of the risk occurring

Estimating the consequences and likelihood of the risk occurring also rely on using information from the work environment and other appropriate sources; for example, information from an industry association or WHS specialist.

PCBUs, health and safety experts and workers should all be involved in the risk analysis and control process. Consultation is important to establish the context of the risk and determine its potential impact.

A risk management process should be implemented and repeated at regular intervals to ensure all hazards have been identified, risks have been assessed, and adequate measures have been taken to control those risks.

Assessing risk
Assessing the risk of each hazard is the next step in a risk management process. Look at the potential consequences of exposure to the hazard and the likelihood of the hazard occurring. The combination of these produces a level of risk.

Before you can control the risk, you must decide on your priorities. Determine what you need to do immediately, in the short term (within a couple of weeks), in the medium term (within a couple of months) and in the long term (over the next year). To do this, determine:
⦁ The severity of the risk
⦁ The number of people affected by the risk
⦁ How easily it can be controlled
⦁ Other benefits that may result from controlling the risk; for example, increased productivity
⦁ Your organisation’s policies and procedures regarding risk priorities

There are a number of ways to control risks, but the most effective is to apply the hierarchy of risk control.

The hierarchy of risk control
The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to the lowest. This ranking is known as the hierarchy of risk control. The OHS/WHS Regulations require duty holders to work through this hierarchy when managing risk under the OHS/WHS Regulations. We will go into more detail later in theis resource.

Include hazard identification at the planning, design and evaluation stages of any change in the workplace to ensure that new hazards are not created by the proposed changes and existing hazards are controlled
Changes in the workplace occur frequently. These changes may introduce new hazards, and, therefore, change the risk level of existing hazards. Workplace changes may include:
⦁ Changes in staffing
⦁ Changes in property
⦁ Changes in work practices

When changes occur, PCBUs have a legal responsibility to consult with workers on the effects these changes may have on WHS. Any new risks must be assessed and controlled.

Planning, designing and evaluating changes
Before implementing any proposed change, you will need to ensure your risk management processes are in place for:
⦁ Identifying hazards
⦁ Assessing risks
⦁ Implementing control measures

When hazard identification occurs at an early stage of the planning process, you will be able to invest time and effort in designing safe work systems, leading to a reduction in hazards when the change is implemented.

 Develop and maintain procedures for selecting and implementing risk controls according to the hierarchy of control and WHS legislative requirements
Developing and implementing risk controls relies on effective analytical and problem­ solving skills as you read through relevant workplace information and data to identify and assess hazards, and then decide what type of risk control action to take.

Hierarchy of risk control
WHS legislation requires ongoing risk management to minimise the impact on workers’ health and safety. PCBUs must develop and maintain procedures that find the most appropriate way of eliminating or reducing any risks identified.

Control measures can be sorted into categories with the most effective strategies listed at the top and the least effective at the bottom. This list of categories is collectively known as the hierarchy of risk control. Select control measures from as high on the hierarchy as possible.

Types of controls
There are many methods that you can use assist in controlling risks and hazards in the workplace. There are techniques, tools and processes for identifying and controlling health and safety hazards and risks, which include:
⦁ Hazard and risk checklists
⦁ Hazard hunts
⦁ Job safety analyses
⦁ Manifests and registers, including for dangerous goods, hazardous chemicals and plant
⦁ Safe work method statements
⦁ Surveys using questionnaires, interviews and other survey techniques
⦁ Workplace inspections and walk-throughs

Control of associated risks may include:
⦁ Administrative as specified in WHS acts, regulations and codes of practice
⦁ Counselling/disciplinary processes, such as those associated with alcohol and other drugs
⦁ Education about alcohol and other drugs work-related issues
⦁ Engineering
⦁ Hazard elimination
⦁ Housekeeping and storage
⦁ Issue resolution
⦁ Personal protective equipment
⦁ Purchasing of supplies and equipment
⦁ Workplace inspections, including plant and equipment

Identify inadequacies in existing risk controls according to the hierarchy of control and WHS legislative requirements, and promptly provide resources to enable implementation of new measures
You may find that risk control measures that are in place for some hazards may not be adequate, or they may become ineffective as conditions or circumstances change.

An important part of a PCBU’s responsibilities is to assess the effectiveness of risk controls, identify inadequacies and report risk control inadequacies according to the organisation’s policies and procedures.

It should not be assumed that risk control measures will always be adequate to solve a problem. New or existing risk controls should always be checked in case they do not effectively protect health and safety. Newly implemented risk controls should be tested in some way before workers begin using the new system if this is feasible. In the case of existing controls, changes in work practices may inadvertently introduce new risks or undermine the efficacy of existing risk controls. Checking the methods chosen to solve WHS problems is known as ‘monitoring and evaluation of risk controls’.

This can be done using the hazard identification procedures already covered—for example, by asking workers whether they are aware of on-going risks, making observations and taking relevant measurements.

If deficiencies are found in risk controls, or better ways are found to fix a problem (‘better’ in this sense means using strategies from further up the hierarchy of risk control), management should promptly provide sufficient resources to enable the risk to be properly controlled. Risk management is not an optional process to be carried out when the employer has time—it should be built into routine procedures such as purchasing and induction.

Identify requirements for expert WHS advice, and request this advice as required
Using WHS experts
PCBUs may need to call on specialists for advice. However, it is important to evaluate their expertise and the relevance of their experience to the particular industry, problem and work context. It is also important to clarify how the specialist will interact with the work group to obtain the required information. A specialist working in isolation without any input from workers may result in flawed evaluations and inappropriate recommendations.

Topic 4 – Evaluate and maintain a WHS management system
Develop and provide a WHS induction and training program for all workers as part of the organisation’s training program
All workers must complete WHS induction training and ongoing refresher courses throughout the life. Preparing new workers for their job roles and ensuring they understand all relevant WHS policies and procedures and how they can contribute is also a legal responsibility of all PCBUs.

Training programs should ensure workers are equipped to perform their roles in a safe manner with minimal risks to themselves and others.

Providing workplace induction
New workers should be provided with a full induction and training program.

A WHS induction should include:
⦁ A tour of the facility
⦁ An explanation of the WHS duty of care and implications for workers
⦁ Work instructions and any hazards and risks associated with specific tasks
⦁ Fire and emergency response requirements
⦁ First-aid facilities and procedures
⦁ General health and safety policies and procedures
⦁ Details of the health and safety committee, health and safety representatives (where appointed) and meetings schedule
⦁ Specific WHS training programs, which may include:
⦁ Safe operation of equipment relevant to their work role
⦁ Personal protective equipment (PPE)
⦁ Risk management
⦁ How to get WHS help when needed
⦁ Maintaining work-life balance
Your organisation should have an induction checklist to ensure all relevant information is given to new workers during the induction period.

ongoing training
Under WHS legislation and regulations, workers must attend mandatory training programs on such topics as:
⦁ WHS compliance requirements
⦁ WHS consultation for HSRs and HSCs
⦁ WHS duty of care for PCBUs
⦁ WHS risk management for PCBUs and team leaders
⦁ Availability of first-aid officers or fire wardens
⦁ Industry-specific training (for example, working in confined spaces, working with infectious materials)
⦁ Emergency procedures

Ongoing or refresher training may be required for workers who are involved in specialist activities that require specific licensing or regulatory requirements; for example, operating mechanical aids such as forklifts, cranes and other heavy machinery.

Training may be conducted by internal training personnel or a health and safety officer in the workplace. In some cases, training may need to be provided by an external training provider at an external location or by a WHS, management specialist.

 Use a system for WHS recordkeeping to allow identification of patterns of occupational injury and disease in the organisation, and to maintain a record of WHS decisions made, including reasons for the decision
Records are the means by which duty holders can demonstrate compliance with their duties and obligations under the model WHS Act and model WHS Regulations. Records can be used to assist duty holders to implement and maintain risk control measures and provide useful information when it comes to reviewing work health and safety performance.

There are legal obligations to keep and maintain some work health and safety-related records for specific periods. These record-keeping requirements currently vary across jurisdictions. They may cover, for example, specific record-keeping requirements for risk assessments, risk controls, work health and safety training, and in relation to monitoring workers’ health. Some regulations also place record-keeping requirements on upstream duty holders such as designers and manufacturers.

To make sure your organisation complies with WHS legislation, you must ensure WHS records are stored and maintained in a simple and easy-to-read format. It is important to be able to analyse and review WHS and relevant worker records. The types of records kept by the organisation must meet legislative reporting requirements and the organisation’s needs from a WHS management perspective. Records must be stored securely and are subject to the same privacy requirements as any other worker records.

Storing and maintaining WHS records enables an organisation to meet its legislative obligations and effectively review and analyse information about WHS. These records also provide a useful tool for management decision-making because the records can be analysed to indicate WHS priorities and activities in the organisation.

WHS record keeping may relate to:
⦁ Audit and inspection reports
⦁ Consultation, such as:
⦁ Meetings of health and safety committees
⦁ Work team meeting agendas, including WHS items and actions
⦁ First aid/medical post records
⦁ Hazardous chemicals registers
⦁ Induction, instruction and training
⦁ Manufacturer and supplier information, including dangerous goods storage lists
⦁ Plant and equipment maintenance and testing reports
⦁ Workers’ compensation and rehabilitation records
⦁ Workplace environmental monitoring records


⦁ Your organisation will have set documentation that must be kept, and it will be your responsibility to ensure these records and completed, maintained and stored effectively.

Measure and evaluate the WHSMS in line with the organisation’s quality systems framework
A quality systems framework is the organisational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. In a WHS context, the quality systems that must be adopted by an organisation and addressed in their WHS policies and procedures include the following:
⦁ ISO 9001:2008 Quality management systems is the benchmark for organisations with quality management systems in place, ensuring all systems, processes and procedures are of the highest standard and embrace the concept of continuous improvement
⦁ AS/NZS 4801:2001 Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) management systems provides the specifications for, and application of, best-practice health and safety management systems
⦁ ISO 14001:2004 Environmental management systems details management specifications for sustainability and environmental impact reduction
⦁ AS/ NZS ISO 31000:2009 Risk management – principles and guidelines provides an overall risk management approach specification for organisations and industry, beyond (but inclusive of) WHS systems

When evaluating your WHS system against quality standards, use a mix of proactive and reactive monitoring systems to evaluate the extent to which relevant policy, procedures and objectives are being met. You will need well-developed problem-solving skills to identify and practise the required proactive and reactive monitoring.

Measuring performance
To determine whether objectives are being achieved, you can measure performance by using a mixture of lead and lag indicators.
⦁ A lead indicator enables an organisation to take pre-emptive actions to improve the chances of achieving strategic goals.
⦁ Lag indicators, on the other hand, are statistics or information that follows an event that has already occurred.
Develop and implement improvements to the WHSMS to achieve organisational WHS objectives
All organisations must continually find ways to improve their organisational safety to reduce the risk of worker injury and illness.

Continuous improvement focuses on preventing problems, corrective action and performance to enhance health and safety in the workplace.

In a WHS context, continuous improvement is the process of improving the WHS management system to achieve enhancements in overall performance. This is achieved by regularly reviewing the organisation’s policies, procedures and practices embodied in its WHS action plan.

Proactive response
Ongoing improvement should be conducted as part of an organisation’s WHS processes:
⦁ Prepare an action plan
⦁ Implement the plan
⦁ Monitor and review the actions
⦁ Identify improvements where necessary
⦁ Then prepare an action plan to implement them

Senior management should adopt a proactive response to planned and sustained WHS initiatives. If the organisation is typically reactive in its response, this can be a sign that the WHS management system is failing.

Proactive responses include researching new and more effective equipment, systems and work practices, and consulting with industry or WHS specialists for advice on how to address the new requirements. Continuous improvement will mean you are continually reviewing your organisations WHS management system and thereby ensuring you are not reactive in response to issues.

You may review the organisation’s WHS system by analysing its ability to meet WHS objectives and performance targets. Examples of WHS objectives may include the following:
⦁ Ten per cent reduction in lost time incidents for the year
⦁ Reduction in unplanned absences by three days per worker per year
⦁ Improvement in WHS compliance performance by 10 per cent in all areas of the organisation

Action plans
Action plans are a key tool in continuous improvement processes, and should be used to record actions and accountability issues and include information on reporting channels and follow-up instructions.

All identified corrective actions as a result of monitoring activity should be:
⦁ Communicated to management through management committees and formal WHS reporting channels
⦁ Recorded with times for completion, dates for progress reports required and the person responsible
⦁ Signed off on actual completion date by the relevant authorised person

Consultation is crucial during the improvement process. Consultation with workers may reveal that protective equipment is unsuitable for the task or the workers involved, and it may be necessary to investigate alternatives.

Ensure compliance with the WHS legislative framework so that, as a minimum, WHS legal requirements are achieved
Reviewing management systems and maintaining compliance with legislation is a requirement of any organisation. Structured reviews ensure the organisation’s policies and procedures are being applied effectively and comply with current legislative requirements. Structured reviews enable the organisation to fulfil internal and external reporting requirements. A review of the organisation’s compliance with WHS should include:
⦁ How current WHS legislation, regulations and codes of practice are embedded in the organisation’s policies and procedures
⦁ Whether legislation, regulations and codes of practice have been revised or replaced
⦁ The potential impact of emerging legislation
⦁ New or revised guidance from specialists
⦁ New or amended instructions from suppliers or equipment and/or materials
⦁ Worker compliance with key areas of WHS
⦁ Effectiveness of actions implemented as a result of previous audit outcomes

Conducting regular audits
In addition to routine monitoring and reviews, you should also conduct audits to ensure the WHS system complies with appropriate standards, regulations, Acts and contract criteria. It should then be possible to judge whether the system is adequate for meeting the organisation’s WHS objectives and complies with statutory guidelines. An effective systems audit:
⦁ Identifies the scope, frequency and methodologies to be used
⦁ Determines whether the WHS system conforms to planned arrangements and complies with legislation
⦁ Determines whether the WHS system has been properly implemented and maintained
⦁ Uses data from previous audits
⦁ Provides information to management on the results of audits
⦁ Is conducted by workers independent of those who have direct responsibility for activities being audited
It is important that the purpose of auditing is made clear to all who are involved, to encourage positive participation in the process and to enable accurate data to be gathered. The purpose of audits is not to find fault and point a finger of blame at those workers or departments that do not comply. Rather, auditing should be treated as a useful tool in improving organisational effectiveness and an essential part of an organisation’s continuous improvement process.

summary
Now that you have completed this unit, you should have the ability to ensure a safe workplace.

If you have any questions about this resource, please ask your trainer. They will be only too happy to assist you when required.

References
“How to Ensure Workplace Safety | Chron.com.” n.d. Web. 25 Sep. 2016 .
“The Management Of Work Health And Safety In The Commonwealth.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .
” WHS duty holders.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .
“Managing workplace hazards, and consultation in the workplace.” Web. 21 May. 2015 .
“Requirements To Consult With Workers.” Web. 21/05/2015. https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/624/Work_Health_and_Safety_Consultation_Cooperation_and_Coordination.doc.

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