CN4OO2 PAPER
Write 3 pages in total, using APA 7
Diabetes has been chosen for this assessment
use current sources
Review the rubric

Overview
For this Performance Task Assessment, you will create a patient education fact sheet for a genetic-based health issue that can be used to provide patient education in nursing practice.

Submission Length: Two-part Assessment: 2-page patient-education fact sheet and 1-page written response to prompts

Instructions
To complete this Assessment, do the following:

Be sure to adhere to the indicated assignment length.
Review the scenario.
Complete a fact sheet for a genetic-based health issue.
Complete your responses to the two questions related to the genetic-based health issue.
Download the Academic Writing Expectations Checklist to review prior to submitting your Assessment.
Before submitting your Assessment, carefully review the rubric. This is the same rubric the SME will use to evaluate your submission and it provides detailed criteria describing how to achieve or master the Competency. Many students find that understanding the requirements of the Assessment and the rubric criteria help them direct their focus and use their time most productively.

All submissions must follow the conventions of scholarly writing. Properly formatted APA citations and references must be provided where appropriate. Submissions that do not meet these expectations will be returned without scoring.

This assessment requires submission of two files. Save your first file as CN4002_firstinitial_lastname_part1 (for example, CN4002_J_Smith_part1) and your second file as CN4002_firstinitial_lastname_part2 (for example, CN4002_J_Smith_part2).

You may submit a draft of your assignment to the Turnitin Draft Check area to check for authenticity. When you are ready to upload your completed Assessment, use the Assessment tab on the top navigation menu.

Important Note: As a student taking this Competency, you agree that you may be required to submit your Assessment for textual similarity review to Turnitin.com for the detection of plagiarism. All submitted Assessment materials will be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of such materials. Use of the Turnitin.com service is subject to the Usage Policy posted on the Turnitin.com site.

Scenario:

You are a nurse who treats patients that have many different genetic health issues. At your last staff meeting, your nursing supervisor asked each nurse to develop an educational fact sheet for a genetic-based health issue that you encounter in your day-to-day practice, as well as to respond to some questions related to the genetic-based health issue. You will select a genetic-based health issue, create a fact sheet for the genetic-based health issue you selected, and provide a written response related to the genetic-based health issue you selected.

This assessment has two parts. Click each of the items below for more information on this Assessment.

Part 1: Fact Sheet
Create a 2-page patient education fact sheet for a genetic-based health issue that addresses the following:

Provide a brief history of the genetic-based health issue you selected, including a description of the genetic-based health issue.
Analyze statistical information on the genetic-based health issue you selected.
Be sure to support the statistical information about the genetic-based health issue you selected with evidence from at least three additional scholarly resources.
Summarize the characteristic signs and symptoms associated with the genetic-based health issue you selected.
Explain how patients are screened, diagnosed, and treated for the genetic-based health issue you selected.
Describe patient screening and diagnoses related to the genetic-based health issue you selected.
Explain any medications that may be used to treat the genetic-based health issue you selected.
Explain whether pharmacogenomics are being used to treat the genetic-based health issue you selected, or whether research in pharmacogenomics is being conducted for this genetic-based health issue by providing two examples.
When developing your patient education fact sheet, keep in mind that the fact sheet should be visually appealing and appropriate for your patient audience. The patient education fact sheet should be formatted for easy reading, including the use of bullet points and short sentences. Be sure to include at least three scholarly resources in the creation of your patient education fact sheet in addition to the resources for this Competency Assessment.

Part 2: Written Response to Fact Sheet
Provide a 1-page written response that addresses the following related to your patient education fact sheet:

Explain the nurse’s role in advocating for the patient diagnosed with the genetic-based health issue you selected for your fact sheet.
Explain the ethical considerations nurses should be prepared to address with patients as they consider information presented in the fact sheet.
Support these considerations with evidence from at least three scholarly resources in addition to the resources for this Competency Assessment.

Overview
Diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects how the body metabolizes sugar (glucose). Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, which is then released into the bloodstream. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin to help glucose get from the bloodstream into the body’s cells. In diabetes, the pancreas either does not produce enough insulin or the body does not properly use the insulin it produces, causing sugar to build up in the bloodstream instead of being absorbed by cells. There are two main types of diabetes:
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This results in an absolute deficiency of insulin. Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5-10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. It usually develops in childhood or young adulthood but can develop at any age. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to survive.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. This leads to high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes accounts for around 90-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include being overweight, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and age over 45. While type 2 diabetes primarily affects adults, it is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents, likely due to rising rates of childhood obesity.
Statistics
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2020 over 34 million Americans, or 10.5% of the U.S. population, had diabetes. Of those, approximately 7.3 million cases were undiagnosed. The CDC projects that as many as 1 in 3 American adults could have diabetes by 2050 if present trends continue (CDC, 2020). Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. In 2018, diabetes was listed as the primary cause on 83,564 death certificates and was listed as a contributing factor on an additional 16,249 death certificates (CDC, 2020).
The prevalence of diabetes varies significantly by race and ethnicity. According to the CDC, American Indians/Alaska Natives, African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, and Asian Americans are at higher risk of developing and dying from diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. For example, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among non-Hispanic blacks (13.8%) is almost twice as high as it is among non-Hispanic whites (7.5%) (CDC, 2020).
Signs and Symptoms
Common signs and symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, unusual weight loss, increased fatigue, irritability, and blurred vision. However, these symptoms do not always occur, especially in the early stages of the disease. Some people may have no symptoms at all. That is why it is important for people at high risk for diabetes to get tested.
Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Screening for diabetes is recommended for all adults over age 45, as well as those who are overweight and have additional risk factors such as family history. Screening involves a simple blood test called a hemoglobin A1C that measures average blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months. A result of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates a diagnosis of diabetes.
Once diagnosed, treatment for diabetes involves managing diet, physical activity, medication, blood sugar monitoring, and reducing other risk factors like high blood pressure and high cholesterol. For type 1 diabetes, treatment requires taking insulin through injections or an insulin pump. For type 2 diabetes, treatment may involve lifestyle changes, oral medications, insulin therapy, or a combination. Newer diabetes medications work in different ways, such as increasing insulin production, improving insulin sensitivity, or slowing digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.
Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to medications. Research in this area holds promise for improving diabetes treatment by enabling a more personalized approach. For example, some diabetes medications work better in people with certain gene variants. Identifying these genetic markers could help providers choose the most effective treatment option for each patient. Additionally, researchers are working to develop new diabetes drugs that target specific genes and pathways involved in the disease. With further research, pharmacogenomics may enable truly personalized diabetes care tailored to a person’s unique genetic profile (NIH, 2022).
In summary, diabetes is a serious chronic condition affecting millions of Americans. Through improved screening, treatment, and research like pharmacogenomics, healthcare providers can help people manage this disease and prevent or delay its potentially devastating complications. Continued efforts are still needed to reduce the health disparities seen in certain racial/ethnic groups as well. With a team-based care approach and focus on lifestyle modifications, many people can achieve good blood sugar control and optimal health outcomes with diabetes.
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). National diabetes statistics report, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics-report/index.html
National Institutes of Health. (2022). What is pharmacogenomics? research paper writing service https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/genomicresearch/pharmacogenomics
American Diabetes Association. (2021). Statistics about diabetes. https://www.diabetes.org/about-us/statistics/about-diabetes
Doesken, N. P., & Ropeik, D. (2019). Diabetes: The silent killer. Science & society series on science for judges. Science, 366(6465), 499–500. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz1656

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