Public Health And community studies degree ……. topic is …..Life span Development and identity
Module Learning Outcomes

LO2 Describe how our identity is socially constructed

LO4 Assess the effect of social influences on developing or modifying behaviour.

LO5 Identify and explain the main contributions of different theoretical perspectives to explain personality and life-span development.

LO6 Compare and contrast theories of lifespan development

Compare and contrast two theories of lifespan development and how it accounts for the construction of self-concept

Background

Human development is dynamic, multi linear, and highly plastic in nature. There are many factors that affect its progress. Each stage is marked with physical milestones that a human body should achieve. Cognitive and intellectual milestones are achieved through the right balance between biological and environmental influences. However, if the balance is disturbed, there are numerous developmental challenges to be dealt with. This assignment will give you an opportunity to develop a critical understanding of those theoretical perspectives, debates and key issues.

Requirement

The essay should be of highest academic quality fulfilling all the required learning objectives mentioned below. It will relate to theoretical perspectives of development, key issues and debates pertinent to theories of development.
Your essay should include:

Describe how our identity is socially constructed. (LO2)
Describe theories of identity and concept of self. For example- Mead, Cooley, Tajfel etc.

Assess the effect of social influences on developing or modifying behaviour. (LO4)
Assess the effects of various social and cultural influences on development For example- describe how our identity is influenced by historical time, culture, ethnicity, family background.

Identify and explain the main contributions of different theoretical perspectives to explain personality and life-span development. (LO5)
Explain psychological (cognitive, behavioural, & psychodynamic) and biological perspectives of development. Also highlight the emerging key debates and issues arising from your discussion. For example- nature and nurture debate

Compare and contrast theories of lifespan development. (LO6)
Compare and contrast any 2 perspectives described in LO5.

Guidance notes and considerations

Remember to proof read your work
Stay within the word limit with 10% margin
Ensure you use Harvard referencing

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Hi there in Learning outcome 2 I have to explain how identity is constructed through and against theory such as using mead or cooley … I would prefer to use mead if possible please .

Lo3 access factors that lie outside an individual which influence development of self concept and how they contribute etc.

Lo4 I have to choose two theoriest and explain them and how self concept is constructed from 2 perspectives ….. and provide and outline on how they differ. such as erikson vs piaget or frued vs bandura etc

using the nature nurture debate and critically evaluation is very important.

Hope that helps a little xxx
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Very good analysis of knowledge gained to date viewed from different perspectives
Very good range of theories and academic sources appropriately included that are relevant and applied well.
Good use of Harvard referencing and paraphrasing, in text and end list
Very good understanding and evaluation of theories. Good justification of perspectives used
Very good essay structure with very good grammar and use of language. Clarity maintained throughout essay. Very good essay structure.

Coaching Performance Assessment Brief Task1

Coaching Performance Assessment Brief Task1
Athlete Profile and Introduction
Born in Nairobi, Kenya, he was identified at school as having a great athlete potential by his PE teacher. He went on to be very successful junior athlete even at one time winning a silver medal at the Rift Valley Cross Country Championships. The athlete made a breakthrough in senior stage only once in the year 2006 when he lowered his best from 15:30:04 to 15:11:53 in National championships in Mombasa. He won his first major medal in 2006 National Championship in Mombasa and made an impressive 7Th at a World Cross Country Champions in Mogadishu. In 2014 National champions he made his best shot when finish 6th with an improvement on his lifetime best of 15:11:53. In 2015, he proved beyond doubt that he will be fit for international athletics when he won the Rift Valley Championships over 5000m with a record time of 15:11:03.
Spot plays a bigger role in the lives of people all over the world. The world had recognized the importance of sports and exercise in the lives of people especially those that spend a lot of time on computers and leave little or no time at all for gym. In the health perspective, active involvements of sports reduces the chances of suffering from obesity. In the US for example due to this reason Michelle Obama has started a campaign whose slogan goes “America’s move to raise a healthier generation of kids. Therefore, the young aspiring athlete may be a source of inspiration to others who will participate in exercise and hence reduce their chances of being obese (McArdle et al., 2000).
Sports are also a very significant contributors of income both for the individual athletes and the nation. When athlete take part in both local and international Championships they do not only win the Gold, Silver or the Bronze medals but also get large sums of money as reward. In some developing countries, this money is nowadays a source of income for the government too as they have set up policies that see the athletes earning taxed. Sports are also cultural events. The rationale for this work is to make sure that the right training and favorable environment is provided for the named athlete so that he can achieve his best in the games to draw home the said benefits.
Assessment Methods and Literature
The assessment approach to be use here is the non-age specific screening tool that is usable across sports. The tool uses various themes including posture, muscle balance, joint-specific flexibility, and core strength and body awareness among other themes that are discussed hereby. The use of this tool will enable us to draw conclusions and recommend the best practices that can be adopted by the athlete to avoid injury, optimize the performance and ensure a quick recovery from the already existing problems (Davis et al., 2000). The first assessment approach targets the posture which can be static or sport-specific. The method called standing stork will be used. The testing and measurement is a means of collecting information on which the future assessments of this athlete will be based and the current recommendations are to be done based on the information that is collected from such tests (Galligan et al., 2000). The objective of the said test for measurement of the individual’s posture is to monitor the development of the athlete in maintain a stable equilibrium in static position. This test requires warn dry place preferably gym, a stopwatch and an assistant. The athletes warns up for ten minutes before being put to stand on one foot and lift the remaining foot and place it against the left of the kneecap after which the assistant starts the stop watch and counts as long as possible. Meanwhile the athlete’s hands should be on their hip. The athlete the rests for about three minutes before he stands on both his feet with his hands on his hip and exchanges the right leg with the left one and repeats the exercise. An athlete with poor posture stability is less likely to complete the race without falling. The more he falls the more time he wastes and the lesser the likelihood of his success.
The core muscle strength and stability test will also be preferable for monitoring the athlete progress on the abdominal and lower back muscles. This test requires flat non-slip surface, a mat, a stopwatch and an assistant (Beashel & Taylor, 1996). The assistant instructs the athlete on the positions to maintain. Throughout the test the position of the head, the neck and the back should be maintained as instructed by the assistant. The athlete begins by taking a ten minutes long warm up before supporting his elbows and arms on the mat assuming a raised position and the stop watch in started. The athlete ought to hold in that position for 60 minutes. The different positions are assumed by the athlete and the assistant times him for 60 seconds. When the positions are exhausted, the tests is ended. Essentially, strong muscles should be typical of good athletes and in situations where one is has weak muscles, they may fail to withstand muscle failure arising from muscle pool.
One of the body awareness test preferred for use in this case is the muscle fibre test. This tests is used to determine the fibre composition of particular muscles used for athletics. The Dr F. Hartfield and Charles Poliquin muscle fibre tests are the two tests proposed for carrying out this test. This method requires weight training facilities, an assistant and selection. Bizley (1994) identifies that the Dr F. Hartfield test is conducted by first determining one’s repetition maximum position on the exercise and then taking a rest for 15 minutes. The repetitions are performed as many as possible with 80% of the athletes 1RM. Its analysis is as follows: Less than 7 repetitions is fast twist dominant, 7 or 8 repetitions is interpreted as mixed fibre type and lastly more than 8 repetitions is slow twist dominant. The first dominant individuals should use heavier loads and lower repetitions in the training.
Charles Poliquin muscle fibre test is conducted by first determining one’s repetition maximum position on the exercise and then taking a rest for 15 minutes. The repetitions are performed as many as possible with 80% of the athletes 1RM. Its analysis is as follows: Less than 5 repetitions is fast twist dominant, 5 repetitions is interpreted as mixed fibre type and lastly more than 5 repetitions is slow twist dominant. The first dominant individuals should use heavier loads and lower repetitions in the training. Just like in the core muscle strength test, the significance of this test is that it will tell the ability of the muscles to resist tear or breakdown that may cause even permanent injuries to the athlete (Beashel & Taylor, 1997). Remedies are therefore, to be preferred immediately.
Findings
The aspiring athlete’s test results on posture was above average. However, much he tried his score was always lying between 41 and 50. These values mapped onto the normative data are designated “Above Average”. There is an online calculator for the results of this test for my athlete who was between the age of 16 and 19, the gender was selected and the total time for exercise inserted and then the values calculated. Unfortunately, there was no normative assessment for the core strength and core stability training. After using Dr F. Hartfield test in determining the athlete’s repetition maximum position on the exercise and then taking a rest for 15 minutes and performing as many as possible with 80% of the athletes 1RM, the athlete was found to have less than 7 repetitions is fast twist dominant. For Charles Poliquin muscle fibre test performed in the same manner as Dr F. Hartfield test, less than 5 repetitions which is fast twist dominant was confirmed.
Recommendations
Strength coaches and trainers should constantly athletic performance in the field and training performance in the weight rooms. The coach should strive to ensure that the athlete achieves explosive power while at the same time maintain the bodies under constant control (CHU, 1996). Overlooking posture may risk the whole of a training session because posture is a critical component in the process of training.
The movement quality of an athlete can be gathered by simply examining how he sits and stands but for the assessment of posture the simple observation and palpation skills-method of feeling the muscles tissues, bones ex cetera during a physical examination alone are not feasible. The best approach would be to compare the previous data with the previous values determined for the general population. This will reduce bias and improve the reality of the test. The stability tests have been a subject of research over a long period of time. The research on this subject of have numbered the innumerable benefits of this exercises especially for people who have back [pain and for those who carry these activities every day. Less research has been carried on how the training ought to be carried out to optimize the performance in sports. Consequently, many athletes undertake the core strength and stability trainings while disregarding the contradictory findings and deductions on their efficacy. A good proposal for adoption in such a case is that a good understanding of the roles played by the specific muscles during the core strength and core stability training will enable the implementation of more suitable programs and effective transfer of the skills to the sporting arena.
In conclusion, the aspiring athlete was born in Nairobi, Kenya, he was identified at school as having a great athlete potential by his PE teacher. He went on to be very successful junior athlete even at one time winning several silver medal at various Cross Country Championships held at different times in the country. The core muscle strength and stability test will also be preferable for monitoring the athlete progress on the abdominal and lower back muscles. One of the body awareness test preferred for use in this case is the muscle fibre test. This tests is used to determine the fibre composition of particular muscles used for athletics and the tests for posture provide a very good platform for the assessment of athletes.
References
BEASHEL, P. & TAYLOR, J. (1996) Advanced Studies in Physical Education and Sport. UK: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.
BEASHEL, P. & TAYLOR, J. (1997) The World of Sport Examined. UK: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.
BIZLEY, K. (1994) Examining Physical Education. Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers
DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the Study of Sport. UK: Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
GALLIGAN, F. et al. (2000) Advanced PE for Edexcel. Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers
McARDLE, W. et al. (2000) Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
CHU, D. (1996) Explosive Power and Strength. USA; Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc

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