ENQUIRY 2: Evidence for Practice: Trust Issues? Exploring Research for the Purpose of Appraisal Student Guide 2016 HLT1RAE Research & Evidence in Practice This publication was prepared, produced and published by: La Trobe University Victoria Australia 3086 First published: July 2014 Revised: May 2016 © Copyright 2014, 2015, 2016 La Trobe University All rights reserved This publication is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process or placed in computer memory without written permission. All enquiries should be made to the publisher. Course Designers: Iain McAlpine, Linda Pannan, Kerry Fitzmaurice Subject Title: Research and Evidence in Practice Subject Development Team: George Murley, Suzanne Hodgkin, Shane Erickson, Sharon Karasmanis Authors: Melanie Murphy PhD,Alana Hulme Chambers PhD, Suzane Vassallo PhD, Shane Erickson, PhD Contents Introduction 4 Purpose of the enquiry 4 Background and rationale 4 Lecture/Workshop component 5 Subject Intended Learning Outcomes included in this Enquiry* 5 The Enquiry 6 Individual activity – for assessment 6 Assessment 7 Resources 8 Online learning materials 8 Topic-specific resources 9 Academic literacy resources 9 Enquiry 2 Guide 10 Week by Week Workshop Outlines 10 Workshop Week 4 12 Workshop Week 5 21 Workshop Week 6 32 Workshop Week 7 41 Workshop Week 8 47 Introduction As we discussed in Enquiry 1, being able to determine whether the evidence presented to you is credible is important to your practice as a health or human services professional. We learnt how to Ask a practice-related question using the PICO method, and also how to effectively Acquire credible information that we could use to inform our practice. However, once we acquire this information we need to Appraise its relevance to answering our question by examining how strong the evidence is and how well it matches our case at hand. Only then can we determine whether it could be useful in informing our practice (Apply) or whether we need to continue with our search. As you can imagine, the strength of the evidence is based on many factors.Remember, just because an article is published it doesnot mean it gives the definitive answer to your question; a critical eye must be kept open at all times! Purpose of the enquiry The purpose of this enquiry is to introduce and explore quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research designs. Within this, the characteristics of each type of research design will be introduced, along withvalidity, reliability, and trustworthinessand how they relate to the credibility of research evidence. We will learn how to identify different types of study design, think about what kinds of questions they may answer and also discuss what factors could limit the efficacy of a research study to find a solution to the problem it seeks to address. Thus, the focus of Enquiry 2 is the Appraisal of research information. Background and rationale Evidence-based practice requires health and human service professionals to make decisions about practice/s that are supported by the best available evidence. To be able to work effectively in health, in all disciplines, it is essential that health professionals are up to date with the most recent research and understand the application of the available research to practice. There are a number of models in evidence-based practice (EBP), one of which is the 5 step approach, namely: Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply and Assess. In this Enquiry, you will be guided through the Appraisal of research information. Lecture/Workshop component Lectures for this subject are in the form of online multimedia. These are intended to support your Enquiry work and to help you prepare for your workshop activities from week to week. You will access these online resources via the LMS HLT1RAE subject site or via the prescribed LMS resource which accompanies this subject: Murley, G.S., Erickson, S., Hodgkin, S., & Karasmanis, S. (Eds.). (2012).Research basics for health sciences[E-Resource]. Retrieved from La Trobe University, Faculty of Health Sciences. The series of online recordings for this Enquiry are found under Module 2 in the eResource, with additional resources and supplementary materials to be provided on the subject’s LMS site. Subject Intended Learning Outcomes included in this Enquiry* On successful completion of this Enquiry you should be able to: 2. [Utilise systematic search methods to obtain], interpret and summarise key design elements of peer-reviewed journal articles or other forms of evidence-based material: a. Describe how a hypothesis could drive a research design b. Identify the main characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research designs. c. Describe strengths and limitations of quantitative and qualitative research designs. d. Describe which research approaches might be suitable for answering different research questions. e. Identify the main components of a research article that provide details about research design. f. Identify potential biases in research evidence g. Define internal and external validity h. Identify threats to internal and external validity i. Describe strategies to minimise potential bias and threats to validity in research design 4. Demonstrate verbal, written and digital media skills that effective communicate research-based guidance. * Refer to the Subject Learning Guide for the full set of intended learning outcomes The Enquiry Individual activity – for assessment This1500 wordessay will allow you to demonstrate your understanding of appraising evidence (i.e., step 3 of the 5-step approach to evidence-based practice). You will demonstrate your ability to identify issues with research design, validity and bias in peer-reviewed publications. In Enquiry 1 you completed a search for evidence related to a chosen clinical scenario. In this assessment task you will be appraising a research article related to your scenario (hopefully you found this article as part of your search!). These articles are listed below. You must appraise the article below that is related to your chosen scenario from Enquiry 1 as you will be submitting a hard copy of your search strategy with this critical appraisal essay. You will need to source the article from the library database or other online sources.It is not provided for you on LMS.It is your responsibility to please check that you have the correct article. Some authors publish similar articles on the same research topic so make sure the article you find has the same TITLE and is from the same JOURNAL as is listed below. Stuttering scenario: O’Brian, S., Smith, K., & Onslow, M. (2014). Webcam delivery of the Lidcombe program for early stuttering: a phase I clinical trial. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 57(3), 825-830. Garcinia Cambogia scenario: Vasques, C. A., Schneider, R., Klein‐Júnior, L. C., Falavigna, A., Piazza, I., & Rossetto, S. (2014). Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women. Phytotherapy Research, 28(6), 887-891. Glucosamine scenario: Arti, H. R., & Azemi, M. E. (2012). Comparing the effect of glucosamine and glucosamine with alendronate in symptomatic relieve of degenerative knee joint disease: A double-blind randomized clinical trial study. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, 7(3), 87-92. Tinnitus scenario: Sadlier, M., Stephens, S., & Kennedy, V. (2008). Tinnitus rehabilitation: a mindfulness meditation cognitive behavioural therapy approach. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 122(01), 31-37. (**Please note that due to the complexity of the tinnitus articles published over the past 5 years (as per the search instructions for the template activity) the search was expanded to include this relevant article which is more suitable for the purposes of the assessment). Essay question This 1500 wordessay will require you to assess the quality of your allocated article. In doing this you will be asked to: • Briefly summarise the nature, aims and hypothesis/es of the study. • Summarise the methods used in the study, including participants, materials and basic procedure. • Detail the main findings of the study and whether the hypothesis was supported. • Identify potential threats to internal and external validity in the research design. • In conclusion, propose some suggestions as to how threats to validity could have been resolved so that the research outcomes could have been better applied to the health-related field being discussed in the article. Assessment Your work on this Enquiry will be assessed in a number of ways including: 1. An individual 1,500 wordcritical appraisaldue no later than 11:59pm Sunday3rdSeptember 2017 (end of week 10). This is worth 30% towards your final mark. This item of assessment will be submitted via the Turnitin link in the “Assessments” area on LMS for grading. It will be graded by your facilitator via Grademark and returned to you via the Turnitin link. No hardcopies of this work will be accepted or returned to you. 2. The readings, on-line presentations, workshops, and participation in the team components of the enquiry will assist your learning in preparation for the week 9 quiz. Your best two scores combined from the three LMS quizzes is worth 40% of your final subject mark. 1. Individual 1,500-word essay This will be assessed by your Workshop Facilitator (or appropriate nominee appointed by the Subject Coordinator). Topic Critical appraisal of the ONE article related to your Enquiry 1 database search template as listed on page 6 of this guide Length 1,500 words Value 30% of the total marks for HLT1RAE Due date 11:59pm Sunday3rdSeptember 2017 (end of week 10) Refer to the LMS forum for information on extensions and late submission (and associated penalties). Return date Within 2-3 weeks of submission via Turnitin Submission To Turnitin via the LMS site for HLT1RAE. The document you submit to Turnitin should be a complete submission. NO HARD COPIES of this piece will be accepted and no hardcopies will be returned – this mechanism will be fully electronic. Please note: NO COVER SHEET IS TO BE SUBMITTED TO TURNITIN. DO NOT SUBMIT THE RUBRIC TO TURNITIN WITH YOUR SUBMISSION (this increases the similarity index unnecessarily). For further clarification of the grading criteria and final mark allocation, refer to the grading and feedback criteria on LMS under “Assessments”. Referencing Throughout this subject (and your Core First year subjects more generally), you must use the APA 6th referencing system. The library reference tool may assist you, and can be located here: https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/lib.latrobe.edu.au/referencing-tool/ In your final essay you should use additional references to assist you in addressing the essay question where appropriate, even though your chosen article will be your main focus (and must be cited in your reference list). For example, you may need a definition of validity and will need to cite your source for that. Be sure not to use the Enquiry guide as a reference, or rely too heavily on the eResource. Originality This assessment should be a piece of individual and original work. Naturally, you will discuss this task with other students and your Workshop Facilitator whilst you are in the process of developing an understanding of how you will undertake the activity, but each student is expected to submit an individual essay. Refer to the University webpage on academic integrity: https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/latrobe.edu.au/students/learning/academic-integrity Turnitin The University uses text matching software, Turnitin, to analyse similarity between published material and student assignments. The software also matches to other student assignments. All students are required to submit their individual essayto Turnitin, by the due date, to enable analysis; this piece will not be graded until the Turnitin report is available to Facilitators.Advice on the procedure for Turnitin submission will be provided on the HLT1RAE LMS site. You will have an opportunity to submit drafts to Turnitin to check the similarity index for issues with paraphrasing and citation, and make amendments if required, before finalizing the due date. Workshop Facilitators will provide guidance on this process. Your work must be submitted to Turnitin via the LMS site for HLT1RAE and under your own access code (otherwise it will be attributed to the person who logged onto the LMS site). You can submit several drafts prior to the due date and time. The report on your first submission will be available almost immediately, but reports on subsequent submissions can take 24 – 48 hours to process. You will be able to check for inappropriate ‘matches’ and then correct these and re-submit your work. Be aware that all Turnitin links in the CFY open ONE WEEK prior to the assessment due date. Therefore, you have time to update your piece of work and amend referencing to reduce the similarity index. The Turnitin report will also enable your Workshop Facilitator to assess the level of originality of your work and provide feedback as appropriate. 2. .Online quiz 2 – Available from Friday, 18th August 2017, 9:00 AM Three minute online tests will be available at the completion of each Enquiry to assess your learning from each Enquiry. Each test will include 30 multiple choice questions to be completed in 35 minutes. Each is an individual assessment task that students will complete in their own time. The questions will be extracted from a pool of questions and presented in a random order. As such, the questions will vary from student to student. Once the student logs in, they will have 35 minutes to complete the exam and will be automatically and permanently logged out after 35 minutes. Students will be able to return to revise answers if they wish but only within the 35minutes examination timeframe. The log in process for the tests will confirm each student is aware of and acknowledges the 35 minute timeline. Information regarding login for the tests will be provided in the assessment section of the HLT1RAE Moodle site. Resources Online learning materials The presentations for this subject are located either on the Subject LMS site, or via its resource. These are noted below: Week 4 Use the resources provided via the eResource Module 2, Topic 1: “Introduction to quantitative research design”. This week you are introduced to the idea of research hypotheses and different types of quantitative research design. Week 5 Use the resources provided via the eResource Module 2, Topic 3: “Sources of bias and threats to validity in qualitative and quantitative research”and Module 2, Topic 4: “Reliability and rigour in qualitative and quantitative research”. Note that in Topic 3 you are to read 3.1 Validity, 3.2 Internal Validity and 3.3 Indentifying Common types of bias and the impact on results/findings and in Topic 4 you are to read 4.2 Reliability in Quantitative Research (which includes Test-retest reliability, Intra-rater reliability, Inter-rater reliability). Week 6 Use the resources provided via the eResource Module 2, Topic 2: “Introduction to qualitative research design”. This week you are introduced to qualitative research including the main elements of qualitative research designand the types of questions that qualitative research may answer Week 7 Use the resources provided via the eResource Module 2, Topic 4:“Reliability and rigour in qualitative and quantitative research.” Note that you are to read Topic4.1 Rigour in Qualitative Research. You will also need to watch this video: Wells, Y. &Herd, A. (2015, July 23). Quantitative and qualitative research methods. [Video File]. Retrieved from:https://youtu.be/cjBvU1pcmM0 Week 8 In preparation for a team based activity in this week’s workshop you are required to do some pre-reading on a product called the BioHug. You can access this information form the product’s website: https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/biohug.com/index.html Topic-specific resources The main eResource which accompanies this subject is noted below and found via the link in the HLT1RAE subject LMS site. This module supports your weekly workshop activities and contains relevant information for you to follow. Murley, G.S., Erickson, S., Hodgkin, S., & Karasmanis, S. (Eds.). (2012).Research basics for health sciences [E-Resource]. Retrieved from La Trobe University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Each Module in the eResource, corresponds to your Enquiry as follows: Enquiry 1 = Module 1 (Topic 2 is not covered in this subject, however); Enquiry 2 = Module 2 (and builds on Module 1), Enquiry 3 = Module 3. Each module ends with a Quiz for you to test your knowledge of concepts learnt. Academic literacy resources Library Support and Resources Refer to LMS resources. Student Learning Refer to the site: https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/latrobe.edu.au/students/learningto note the student support available to you. Referencing systems Higgs, J., Rosenthal, J.,& Ajjawi, R. (2012). Reference systems and strategies. In J. Higgs, R. Ajjawi, L. McAlister, F. Trede, & S. Loftus (Eds.), Communicating in the Health Sciences (3rd ed., pp. 89-97). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. APA 6 Referencing Tool (ART) -find examples of both ‘in-text’ and ‘reference list’ items https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/lib.latrobe.edu.au/referencing-tool/ Enquiry 2 Guide This enquiry is designed to enable you to develop important knowledge and skills which you will need to develop to undertake evidence-based practice. You will also be expected to apply skills and knowledge developed from this subject in second and third year subjects. This Enquiry will take 5 weeks. Use the following as a guide to your individual study and team work each week. Each workshop runs for 110 minutes. It is expected that you will devote another 110 minutes approximately to work on this enquiry outside of class each week. This might be in unofficial enquiry team meetings or through online discussion or individual work.Completing the weekly pre-reading, before the relevant workshop, is an essential and expected learning activity. Week by Week Workshop Outlines Workshops will commence with a team challenge quiz, which will consolidate information from the on-line resources and weekly readings. At the end of the semester the winning team for each Workshop Group will be congratulated and rewarded! Workshop 4, Week 4 • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Develop an understanding of the Enquiry 2 workshop activities and assessment • Review the database search exemplar videos for the Enquiry 1 search template • Identify the main characteristics of quantitative research designs • Learn about and create hypotheses • Identify characteristics of quantitative research design • Learn about quantitative data collection and analysis Workshop 5, Week 5 • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Review types of validity • Identify bias that threats to validity in research scenarios • Discuss reliability in quantitative research Workshop 6, Week 6 • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Explore the definition of qualitative research • Consider the main elements of qualitative research design, and considerations to take into account when using a qualitative research design • Explore the types of questions that qualitative research may answer • Consider how qualitative and quantitative research designs may complement each other. Workshop 7, Week 7 • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Describe different approaches to qualitative data analysis • Discuss trustworthiness in qualitative research • Assess quality in qualitative research articles Workshop 8, Week 8 • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Consolidate your understanding of the aims and focus of quantitative and qualitative research • Identify the key aspects of mixed methods research • Apply what you have learnt about quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research Individual student preparation for the Week 4 workshop o Download and read: o Subject Learning Guide o Enquiry 2 Guide, and then o Bring these documents to the workshop – either on your electronic device, or in hard copy. o Find the LMS eResource that accompanies the LMS subject site. You should see this on your LMS subject contents page, it is named as: eResource – Research Basics for Health Sciences • “Module 2” in this resource is associated with Enquiry 2 in this subject. Be sure to have read the following materials in Topic 1 (Module 2): 1.0 Introduction & learning outcomes 1.1Relationships between research questions and research designs – Matching study designs to research questions 1.2 Other factors affecting choice of study design 1.3 Other common research designs 1.4 Methodological quality 1.5 Basic organisation and structure of a quantitative research study You can access these readings via this link: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/mod/book/view.php?id=925339 Over the course of Enquiry 2, you will need to read through the following in Module 2: Topic 1 (Introduction to Quantitative Research Design), Topic 2 (Introduction to Qualitative Research Design, Topic 3 (Sources of bias and threats to validity in qualitative and quantitative research), and Topic 4 (Reliability and Rigor in qualitative and quantitative research). Additional resources will be provided in the subject LMS site as required to supplement the material in the eResource. Workshop Week 4 Workshop at a glance In this workshop you will • Develop an understanding of the Enquiry 2 workshop activities and assessment • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Review the exemplar videos demonstrating models of the search strategies undertaken in Enquiry 1 • Identify the main characteristics of quantitative research designs • Learn about and create hypotheses • Identify characteristics of quantitative research design • Learn about quantitative data collection and analysis __________________________________________ 1. Introduction to Enquiry 2 (5 mins) Your facilitator will introduce the second Enquiry and explain the Enquiry title:Evidence for Practice: Trust Issues? Exploring Research for the Purpose of Appraisal 2. Team Challenge Quiz (10 mins) Your Workshop Facilitator will challenge what knowledge you have gained from the pre-readings for this workshop! 3. Finalising Enquiry 1: Reviewing search strategy exemplar videos (30 minutes) (TO BE COMPLETED IN WEEK 6) Over the past two weeks you have been working on a database search for evidence related to one of four clinical scenarios. Today you will be presented with exemplar videos for each of the four scenarios created by the library staff. Your facilitator will encourage you to have your completed template in front of you so that you can compare your search strategy with the exemplar presented by the library staff. You should consider how you will note any differences i.e. taking notes on paper, making comments on your electronic version etc. Please note that these videos will also be available on LMS at the end of the week so that you can review them again in case you miss anything today. You are welcome to make changes to your template based on reviewing the videos before it is handed in with your Enquiry 2 critical appraisal assignment. After the four videos have been shown your facilitator will provide 10 minutes for you to finalise any notes and ask any questions. 4. Unlocking the Researcher Inside! (10 minutes) Now that you have some experience searching for research it’s time to start thinking about the way research is conducted. Without even thinking about it, we are conducting research every day in order to inform our decisions. Of course, these decisions aren’t usually as important as figuring out what kind intervention or treatment approach to utilise with a client/patient, but meaningful to you nonetheless. With your team spend some time considering these points: a. What kinds of decisions have you had to make thus far (e.g., this could range from what type of shoes to buy to what university degree to study)? b. By what process did you come to your ultimate decision? The facilitator will ask you to share some examples from your discussion with the workshop class 5. What is Quantitative Research? (10 minutes) “Quantitative research is a systematic process used to gather and statistically analyse information that has been measured by an instrument and converted to numerical data” (Borbasi, Jackson & Langford, 2008, p.107). Quantitative research is associated with numerical data. That is because the evidence gathered through quantitative data takes the form of numbers. These numbers are subjected to analysis through statistical means in order to: • respond to a hypothesis about how the concepts being researched might be related, or • answer a question about something that is to be explored or described. Quantitative research can be: • pure (basic), which means it is focused on generating or extending fundamental theories, or • applied, which means it is testing a theory. In health sciences disciplines such as nursing and allied health, most quantitative research conducted is applied research (Borbasi et al., 2008) There are a series of main steps that comprise quantitative research. Whilst we will not be covering all of these steps in this subject, it is useful to be able to visualise the process of quantitative research: Steps in the Quantitative Research Process Your facilitator will now show you a clip that features Dr Matthew Cotchett providing an overview of the research process for a study he conducted investigating a comparison of a cortisone injection with a placebo injection (i.e. a fake or sham injection) for reducing pain in people with heel pain. This video is available for you to watch again at a later point via the LMS site:https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/mod/resource/view.php?id=2135910 Now that you have been introduced to the quantitative research process let’s look closer atsome of the key components. The word ‘hypothesis’ was used in Matthew Cotchett’s video and you can also see it as ‘step 2’ in the diagram above, following on from a theory. You have probably heard this term before. Let’s now turn to looking at quantitative research design by exploring more around the notion of a hypothesis. 6. Creating Testable Hypotheses (15 minutes) But what is a hypothesis? You could consider a hypothesis to be an ‘educated guess’ about what a study might find. • Usually a hypothesis is built/constructed based on what has been found by past research looking at a similar question. • It should be quite specific so it can set parameters for the choice of a research design – i.e. what kind of study design is appropriate/not appropriate. • A hypothesis must also be testable, meaning that the study must be designed to create a situation where the researcher can objectively determine whether the ‘educated guess’ is ‘correct’ or not (the correct terminology is supported or not supported). o As such, hypotheses should be phrased as a statement, not a question. It should be directional, so that it can be tested. • It is important to note that some research you read will note state a hypothesis. This is often because the research is so preliminary (i.e. very little or no similar research has previously been published) that it is not possible for the researchers to formulate a hypothesis about what will happen in the research. Instead these researchers might report their research aims or research questions. Team activity As a team, see if you can rephrase each of the questions below into a testable hypothesis and detail something that could be measured to test this hypothesis: Research Question Hypothesis Possible Measure Example: Does using a mobile phone while driving increase the chances of having an accident? It is hypothesised that individuals who use a mobile phone while driving will more frequently be involved in accidents in comparison to individuals who do not use a mobile phone while driving. • Look at traffic accident records to examine number of crashes involving phone use vs no use. • Driving simulator task with and without mobile phone. Do children who were breastfed as babies have a lower risk of illness? How many hours of sleep are required in a single night to perform optimally at University? Does caffeine improve running performance in young adults? Does red wine have a protective effect, in terms of heart disease in people aged over 50 years? Do users of smartphones experience higher rates of head and neck pain? 7. Research design (10 minutes) A research design is a framework that is used to guide the collection and analysis of data. This helps to ensure that the data collected is appropriate for answering the research question or testing the research hypothesis. We learned in the eResource about different types of research designs that can help answer different types of research questions. It outlined the characteristics of these research approaches and the considerations that must be made in deciding on which design is most appropriate in addressing the issue under investigation. In professional practice we may not need to run and design our own study, but it is very important to be able to understand these different approaches so you can assess whether the outcomes of the research are applicable to the clinical question you are asking. Team activity As a team, using what you learnt about the relationship between a research question and a research design in the eResource (Hint: look at Topics1.1 and 1.3 of Module 2 if you need to briefly review this content) complete the table below. In the table are some of the research questions from the previous activity, now your job is to consider an appropriate research design to suit each question. Research Question/Aim Suitable Research Design Do users of smartphones experience higher rates of head and neck pain? Does caffeine improve running performance in young adults? How many hours of sleep are required in a single night to perform optimally at University? Your facilitator will now show you a short clip that features Dr Ian Mosley, Senior Lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, discussing his research design and questions along with his research approach that he used in his doctoral studies. This will give you a sense of how research is formulated in a ‘real world’ setting. This video is available for you to watch again at a later point via the LMS site: Mosley, I. (2015). Overview of the research. [Video File]. Retrieved from:http://tlweb.latrobe.edu.au/health/nursing/DataResearch/OverviewOfResearch.mp4 8. Quantitative Data Collection: Overview (15 minutes) So far we have focused on an introduction to quantitative research; the main characteristics of this research paradigm, developing a testable research hypothesis and considering an appropriateresearch designs. This leads us now to consider the next step in understanding quantitative research: the collection of data. Team activity In your teams quickly brainstorm the following: • What do we mean by “data” in quantitative research? • What are two ways by which quantitative data could be collected? Data collection methods are ways by which the data is collected, or gathered and the research design will often dictate the type of data collection method used. In quantitative research, some common types of data collection methods include questionnaires, surveys, observations, and tests. In quantitative research it is important for the researcher to enter the data in a logical format that can be easily understood and analysed. At the start of today’s sessionwe heard about Matthew Cotchett’s research into the use of cortisone injections to treat heel pain. Your facilitator is now going to show you the dataset for that trial. The dataset contains information such as each participant’s age; gender; height; weight; BMI; comorbidities; self-reported levels of pain; severity of depression, anxiety, and stress; quality of life; sleep habits, and the group to which the participant was randomised to. Team activity Now it’s your turn to collect some data. This activity is designed to apply some of the concepts we have discussed, and get you prepared for the next topic. Your facilitator will give you a survey. In your teams, your task is to (1) select one person to complete the survey, and then (2) as a team, answer the following questions: 1. Which survey questions are specifically gathering quantitative data and which might be gathering another type of data? 2. Could the information gathered by the survey be representative of the opinions of more than just the people in this workshop? Why/Why not? 3. Are there any factors which may affect whether we can trust the accuracy of the data that was collected? Your facilitator will ask each team to report back briefly on the team discussion. 9. Conclusion and preview next workshop (5 mins) In this workshop, we have begun to consider the ‘appraisal’ of research. Today, in relation to quantitative research, you have considered: • What is quantitative research • Developed a testable hypothesis • Discussed characteristics of quantitative research design • Revised research design categories • Overviewed quantitative data collection and analysis. This will lead into next week’s workshop where we will continue to focus on quantitative research. We will look at review types of validity, biases and threats to quantitative research validity. As you work through the workshop activities next week, consider how the themes from workshop 4 (this week) overlap with workshop 5 (next week). Individual student preparation for the Week 5 workshop o Find the LMS eResource that accompanies the LMS subject site. eResource – Research Basics for Health Sciences • Read the following materials in Topic 3 (Module 2) : 3.1 Validity. 3.2 Internal Validity. 3.3 Indentifying Common types of bias and the impact on results/findings. • Read the following materials in Topic 4 (Module 2) : 4.2 Reliability in Quantitative Research. Test-retest reliability. Intra-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability. Random and systematic error. You can access these readings via this link: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/mod/book/view.php?id=925335 Workshop Week 5 Workshop at a glance In this workshop you will • Undertake the quiz • Review types of validity • Identify bias and threats to validity in research scenarios • Discuss reliability in quantitative research 1. Team Challenge Quiz (10 mins) Your Workshop Facilitator will challenge what knowledge you have gained from the pre-readings for this workshop! 2. Identifying Bias and Threats to Validity in Research Scenarios (40 mins) Reflecting on the workshop last week, it is clear that we place an emphasis on critically assessing the quality of the information we use to make decisions. The higher the quality of the information, the more trust we have that it will help us make the right decision. This is because we deem that information to be valid. Although a bit more formalised, the process of assessing the validity of research to inform our practice is quite similar. In the next part of the workshop we will examine the notion of research validity in assessing peer-reviewed publications. A researcher needs to keep validity in mind when designing a quantitative study so they can eliminate as many of the potential biases as possible – not doing so could make interpreting the results difficult. Types of validity can fall into three broad categories: Measurement validity, Internal validity and External validity. Team activity • Measurement validity: When considering measurement validity consider whether the measurements reported really represent the concepts they are supposed to be measuring? For example, you wake up on a winter’s morning with a cold and you’re concerned that you might have a fever. You grab a thermometer and stick it under your tongue. When you pull it out it reads 16 degrees. Given you feel hot and sweaty this can’t be right! You suddenly realise that the thermometer must be measuring the room temperature. In this situation the thermometer is not a valid measure of body temperature (although it might be a valid measure of room temperature). As a team, access Module 2, Topic 3.1 “Validity” and note down the main types of measurement validity and a brief definition. Complete the table below: Measurement Validity Brief Definition • Internal Validity: How sure are we that one factor causes a particular outcome? o For example, how sure are we that studying during semester leads to better exam performance? o You could think of threats to Internal Validity as arising due to what happened when the experiment was running that make it harder to be confident in the results.  For example; maybe you studied hard during the semester but then got sick. This would mean your exam performance might not really reflect your true ability. o Internal validity can be compromised by a number of factors related to those detailed in the eResource:  Events affecting participants during data collection.  Bias in allocating participants to groups. • Can be avoided by using RCT  Long term changes in participant’s response. • An issue for longitudinal studies  Interaction between testing and participant’s refusal to continue. • Maybe there are characteristic differences between the people who stay in a study and those who drop out  Effect of differences in testing conditions or procedures. • Should always try to use the same testing situations and measures/equipment.  Experimenter expectancy • Just as testing can affect performance, the participant can be influenced by his/her perception of the experimenter’s expectations. Figure 2. Diagram of a threat to Internal Validity • External Validity: How well can the results of the study be applied (generalised) to other similar situations with different people at different times? o In other words – To what populations, settings, treatment variables and measurement variables can this effect be generalized? o To maximise External Validity, a study a researcher should ask the following  How representative are our participants? • Are they a good snapshot of the wider population of interest?  How representative are our variables? • Are the variables being tested the best ones to examine in order to answer the question? Do they cover all bases?  How representative is our test situation? • It the situation where data is being collected suitable for gaining realistic measures that could be generalised?  How stable are the above factors over time (how enduring is the finding)? • Can this design be replicated by someone else and still get the same results? Figure 3. Determining the External Validity of a Study Team activity Now that you have learnt that validity can fall into three categories (Measurement validity, Internal validity and External validity) see if you can explain in your own words what each type of validity means. Consider how you might explain these terms to someone who has no background knowledge in this area (i.e. a friend or family member). Try out your explanations on your other team members and your facilitator. Your team will be assigned one of the scenarios below. Discuss with your team the following points as they relate to the scenario: • What particular aspects of the study design could be impacted by the threats to validity detailed above, and in what way would this impact the interpretation of the findings? • Consider the following issues as they relate to bias and validity: o The nature of the question o The participants o Type of design o The measures that could be used o The potential conclusions o What could be done differently to improve the design? SCENARIOS The following experiments have some flaw(s). For each experiment, determine the impact of each threat and explain why the conclusion reached in each case is not valid. 1. The problem of whether children should be taught to read by the word method or by the phonics method has been a point of controversy for many years. Briefly, the word method teaches the child to perceive a word as a whole unit, whereas the phonics method requires the child to break the word into parts. To attempt to decide this issue, an experimenter plans to teach reading to two groups, one by each method. The local school system teaches only the word method. “This is fine for one group,” the experimenter says. “Now I must find a school system that used the phonics method.” Accordingly, a visit is made to another town that uses the phonics method, where a sample of children is tested to see how well they can read. After administering an extensive battery of reading tests, it is found that the children who used the phonics method are reliably superior to those who learned by the word method. It is then concluded that the phonics method is superior to the word method. Can you accept this conclusion? 2. A physician conducted an experiment to study the effect of acupuncture on pain. Half the participants were treated for painful shoulders through acupuncture (one treatment a week for six weeks and each session was conducted for an average of 30 minutes), whereas the other half received standard physical therapy (one treatment a week for six weeks and each session was conducted for an average of 15 minutes). The participants who received acupuncture treatment reported a small improvement in shoulder discomfort that was greater than the standard therapy treatment group. The physician concluded that acupuncture is an effective treatment for chronic shoulder pain. Can you accept this conclusion? 3. In one study, the question concerns the effect of a slight electric shock on learning of verbal materials. The participants learned a list of 15 nonsense syllables; 5 nonsense syllables were followed by a shock each time they were presented and 10 were not. All participants had the same 5 syllables shocked. The list of nonsense syllables was presented until each subject satisfied a performance criterion that showed that they had adequately learned the list. In the analysis of the results, it was found that the syllables followed by the shock were learned more quickly than those that were not shocked. Can it be concluded that shock facilitates learning? 4. A researcher wanted to determine the influence on meaningfulness of material on forgetting. They varied meaningfulness in two ways, low and high meaningfulness of the material. The 2 groups of participants received the same number of learning trials and retention was measured 24 hours later. It was concluded that the high meaningful material was remembered better. Can you accept this conclusion? 3. Reliability in Quantitative Research (25 mins) So far, we have examined the notion of validity in research as one means of assessing the credibility of quantitative research outcomes that we could possibly use for making decisions i.e. do they do measure what they are intended to measure. Another type of trust we can apply to research findings is the idea of reliability. In quantitative research, in order to have good reliability the aim is to ensure that the measurements used are dependable, stable and consistent when assessed under identical conditions. This becomes even more important for practice, because if we are to employ new assessment tools or interventions in the clinic, we need them to be as accurate or effective as possible in order to best serve our patients/clients. One key way is in ensuring the precision of the tools/measures you use.Key things to keep in mind in regards to reliability: a. Consistency – using a standardised procedure, can the same results be obtained again when we expect the results to be the same? b. Agreement – how well do the measurements match across situations, researchers, time? As displayed in the Figure 4 below, a study that hits the mark in terms of a gold standard is one that is both valid and reliable. i.e., the study is consistent in its measurement (reliable) and measures what it says it measures (valid). However, even (or perhaps especially) the world of research is not a perfect world and we can’t have everything. Example: You are probably aware that the purpose of a pedometer is to measure the number of steps that someone takes. If you were to establish the validity and reliability of a given pedometer you could reset the step count to zero and then walk 10 steps across a room. If the pedometer is valid then the step count should be 10. Clearly if the step count is 12 then we would be questioning the validity of the pedometer. Now if you were to reset the pedometer and turn around and walk 10 steps back across the room and the step count was 12 then while the pedometer does not appear to be valid it is in fact reliable i.e. it was consistent in its measurement. Figure 4: Reliability & Validity Team activity As a team, try to explain in words what each of the remaining three targets mean in terms of the outcomes of a study: Meaning for Reliability Meaning for Validity Reliable and Not Valid Low Reliability and Low Validity Not Reliable and Not Valid Both Reliable and Valid Measures outcome consistently Measures outcome accurately Workshop Activity As a workshop, watch the video from the eResource in which Dr Megan Davidson explains different types of reliability in relation to a study conducted with her PhD student to develop a new assessment scale. At the completion of the clip, you will be required to complete the questions below to focus your learning. It is advisable that you take notes as you watch the resource. Davidson, M. (2012). Reliability. [Video clip]. Retrieved from: https://lms.latrobe.edu.au/mod/book/view.php?id=925342&chapterid=1577 1. What were the 3 types of reliability described by Dr Davidson, and what do they assess? a) I b) I c) T 2. How did Dr Davidson and Dr De Morton measure Inter-rater reliability when developing their new scale? 3. What were the characteristics of the participants measured? 4. What did they do to minimise bias in the results? 5. a) Why did they conduct the test on the same day and give the participant a rest between tests? b) How might this improve the reliability of the results? 6. a) Broadly, what was the outcome of their analysis? b) Would this assessment tool be potentially useful in practice? 4. Consolidating learning to date (20 min) Team activity With your team review the article provided by your facilitator and answer the following questions (brief dot points are fine). The purpose of this exercise is to highlight the structure and content of a research article (whatever that content may be), and aspects of quantitative journal articles that we have learnt about so far. This process will also help you prepare for the Enquiry 2 assessment task. 1. Why was the research question being asked? 2. What were the aims and hypotheses of the study? 3. Who were the participants in the study? Were they put into different groups? If so, what were they? 4. What type of research design could this study be categorized as? 5. What types of materials (or instruments or tools) were used? 6. Find the name of a statistical analysis used? 7. How were the results presented? 8. Was the hypothesis supported? 9. Did the authors mention any problems with the study? 10. What was the main conclusion of the study? Now, report back to the workshop on the level of difficulty you had in identifying the following elements in your selected article. Place a tick in the table below under the column that represents your experience with this task (): Element Hard  Kind of tricky  Easy  Research Question Aims & Hypotheses Participants (& groups) Research design Materials (i.e., instruments, tools) Name of statistical analyses Type of data presentation Support for the hypothesis Limitations Conclusions 5. Conclusion: Summary and next week (5 mins) In this workshop, we have: • Reviewed types of validity • Identified bias that threats to validity in research scenarios • Discussed reliability in quantitative research Individual student preparation for the Week 6 workshop Please ensure that you have: • Accessed and read Topic 2 of Module 2 in the eResource (Introduction to qualitative research design). o 2.1 Principles underpinning qualitative approaches o 2.2 Identify common qualitative approaches and methods o 2.3 Match research questions appropriate to specific qualitative research o 2.4 Methodological quality o 2.5 The organisational structure of a qualitative journal article • Read ONE article assigned to your team by your facilitator (this is in order of team number – so team 1 will be assigned article 1, team 2, article 2, and so on as noted below). These articles are located in LMS, in the section on Enquiry 2, week 5, Activities “Articles for Week 5 Workshop Activity.” Read ONE article only (though you can read on if you like) and complete the table. Complete the table below while reading your article. Bring the completed table with you to next week’s workshop: Authors Article Title Brief summary of the article focus Methods used The articles are allocated as follows: Team 1 Members each read: Egan, K., Harcourt, D., &Rumsey, N. (2011). A qualitative study of the experiences of people who identify themselves as having adjusted positively to a visible difference. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(5), 739-749. Team 2 Members each read: Hindle, L., & Carpenter, C. (2011). An exploration of the experiences and perceptions of people who have maintained weight loss. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24, 342-350. Team 3 Members each read: Kidder, J. L. (2013). Parkour: Adventure, risk and safety in the urban environment. Qualitative Sociology, 36, 231-250. Team 4 Members each read: Singh, A.A., Hays, D.G., Watson, L.S. (2011). Strength in the face of adversity: Resilience strategies of transgender individuals. Journal of Counselling& Development, 89, 20-27. Team 5 Members each read: Tyson Smith, R. (2008). Pain in the act: The meanings of pain among professional wrestlers. Qualitative Sociology, 31, 129-148. doi 10.1007/s11133-008-9098-9 Workshop Week 6 Workshop at a glance In this workshop you will • Explore the definition of qualitative research • Consider the main elements of qualitative research design, and considerations to take into account when using a qualitative research design • Explore the types of questions that qualitative research may answer • Consider how qualitative and quantitative research designs may complement each other. 1. Introduction to the Workshop (5 mins) As you have discovered in the previous workshop, quantitative research is excellent for providing us with evidence about how an intervention or treatment worked. However, in health sciences it has become important to not only know if an intervention or treatment worked, but why and how it worked. Qualitative research is an approach to understanding the world, which broadly asserts there are multiple realities (Krauss, 2005). Put simply, it can tell a story (or multiple stories) as to why something may have worked (or not) and how this worked. In the workshop today, we are going to: • Explore the definition of qualitative research • Consider the main elements of qualitative research design, and considerations to take into account when using a qualitative research design • Explore the types of questions that qualitative research may answer • Consider how qualitative and quantitative research designs may complement each other. 2. Team Challenge Quiz (10 mins) Your Workshop Facilitator will challenge what knowledge you have gained from the pre-readings for this workshop! 3. What is qualitative research? (10 mins) Qualitative research has been defined in various ways, and many of these definitions are quite long and complex. Simply, qualitative research is research “that produces findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other means of quantification. It can refer to research about persons’ lives, lived experiences, behaviours, emotions, and feelings as well as about organisational functioning, social movements, cultural phenomena…” (Strauss and Corbin, 1998, p.10-11). In qualitative research we explore and interpret, in-depth, the meanings of peoples’ experiences, from their perspectives. We do this by collecting data at the site/s where events normally happen; in this way we go into the world of our research participants. And we do this in a way that ensures that what we find is acceptable in terms of adhering to standards that ensure our findings are of high quality. We undertake qualitative research when we want to answer particular kinds of research questions. Specifically, qualitative research is appropriate when: • The research involves investigating an issue/event/occurrence around which little information exists • There is a need to explore the issue/event/occurrence in detail and depth • There is a need to understand attitudes and behaviours • Qualitative data is needed to tell a story around quantitative data because there is a need to know why something happened, not just that it happened. Similar to quantitative research (refer back to the diagram in the week four workshop guide), there is a broad process that qualitative research can follow: A general qualitative research process Team activity As a team, see if you can determine whether the issues below are referring to a qualitative or quantitative research approach. Tick () the appropriate box below and note down a couple of points to justify your selection. Your facilitator will ask the group to justify why they have selected their answer. Research scenario A qualitative approach would be most appropriate () A quantitative approach would be most appropriate() Justify why you selected the approach You have been asked to find out how many students in this workshop travel by motorbike to campus. The Australian Football League announce they are undertaking research into whether fans would accept all Sherrin footballs being pink. Your facilitator describes his/her new research idea, which is to interview all first year health sciences students about why they chose to study at La Trobe University. You have a job as a research assistant on a research project that aims to understand how a new obesity prevention program is being implemented. You want to determine whether weight loss will reduce joint pain in those with arthritis of the hip. Types of questions that qualitative research may answer (10 mins) As you may have realised, the nature of qualitative research means that the way in which we ask a qualitative research question is different to how we pose a quantitative question. In qualitative research we need to be careful to match our research question with our research purpose. The following table provides an overview of how to match research purpose with general types of research questions. These types of questions could be tailored to the particular details of a phenomenon under investigation. Table 1. Matching research purpose and questions(from Marshall and Rossman, 1999, p.33). A clear research question helps to clarify what type of research design is going to be most appropriate for guiding how we gather information to answer our question. Watch the clip that your facilitator is going to show you by Holland and Elander (2013). Allocate a question from the ones below to each member in your team to jot down and answer as you watch the clip (more than one team member can be allocated the same question). At the end of the clip share your answers with your team members. • Why is a good research question important? • What does a well formulated research question tell you? • Why is reviewing the literature around a topic important when formulating a research question? • Do we have a hypothesis in qualitative research? Note: If you want to watch this on your own deviceat a later time (and this is recommended), the reference is: Holland, J., &Elander, J. (2013, September 11). What makes a good research question – Advanced qualitative methods. [Video File]. Retrieved from:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kVCn7KJgeM&feature=youtu.be 4. The main elements of qualitative research design (15 mins) If you have been keeping up with the e-Resource you will have done some reading about qualitative and quantitative research design. The e-Resource contains an interesting section that leads us now into considering qualitative research design. To highlight again here, we do not determine our research design (how we are going to undertake finding answers to our research question) by doing what we prefer, for example gathering numerical data, or conducting interviews. What we need to do is think about what is the best way to find the answer to the research question. There are many types of qualitative research designs available. The e-Resource (Topic 2.2) outlines some of the most common designs.What were they?Spend some time with your team identifying these (3 mins). Team Activity (Team: 5 mins + Facilitator: 2 min sum up) After your facilitator has shown you the video file by Dubois and Iltis (2013), each team will be asked to write down three reasons your team thinks qualitative research is important for health professionals’ knowledge and professional practice. You will then share this with the workshop. For your reference, the video is: Dubois, J., &Iltis, A.S. (2013, April 18). In other words: Narrative enquiry in bioethics. [Video File]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E9jK_m6a5wk&feature=youtu.be] Considerations when using a qualitative research design (5 mins) Once a researcher has decided upon a research question and a design, the next considerations are: 1. Data: what methods are going to be used to collect data? 2. Procedures: how is the data going to be analysed? 3. Written and verbal reports: how is the data going to be presented? For example, is it going to be a report, a journal article, an oral presentation, in the form of a video clip, or even an interpretive dance? (don’t laugh, this has been documented as a way of presenting qualitative research findings!!) Considerations 2 and 3 will be discussed in later workshops. After the break we will spend some time looking at data collection. 5. Methods for collecting qualitative data (20 mins) As you can see below, there are many ways of collecting qualitative data. You should have read about a few of these in the e-Resource but here is a more comprehensive list below: You can see here that there are a large number of ways that we can collect data. Your facilitator will assign some of the methods to your team to discuss the form in which data for these methods could be collected. For example. For “Questioning” a telephone interview could be an appropriate method for your research question. Assessing research methods in qualitative publications (30 mins) As part of your pre-reading for this week, you were asked to read one article provided for you on LMS and complete the table below (15 mins): Authors Article Title Brief summary of the article focus Methods used Briefly compare in your team whether you identified the same methods described in your article. You will be asked to share your findings with the workshop to highlight the various methods used in the acquisition of qualitative data in these works (15 mins). 6. Conclusion: Summary and next week (5 mins) Today we have: • Explored the definition of qualitative research • Considered the main elements of qualitative research design, and considerations to take into account when using a qualitative research design • Explored the types of questions that qualitative research may answer • Considered how qualitative and quantitative research designs may complement each other. Individualstudent preparation for the Week 7workshop • Please ensure that you have accessed and read the following parts ofthe eResource prior to the Week 7 workshop: o Topic 4 of Module 2 (Reliability and rigour in qualitative and quantitative research)in the eResource.  4.1 Rigour in Qualitative Research • Please watch this video: Wells, Y.,&Herd, A. (2015, July 23). Quantitative and qualitative research methods. [Video File]. Retrieved from:https://youtu.be/cjBvU1pcmM0 o This video will consolidate many of the concepts we have learned over the past few weeks. In addition, you will be able to gain a sense of how qualitative and quantitative data is collected and analysed, and what this means for health professionals in practice. o As you are watching answer the following questions to be discussed in the week 7 workshop:  What was the study about?  Explain how Yvonne conducted her interview so as not to compromise the validity of the measures.  Yvonne refers to quantitative data as “………”-based. (Complete the blank)  How does Angela’s semi-structured interview differ from Yvonne’s structured interview?  What are some benefits of the semi-structured interview highlighted in this research? o Once you have watched the video write down some dot points in the table below that highlight the differences between a quantitative and qualitative approach. This will also be discussed in the week 7 workshop. Focus Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Purpose Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Application of Outcomes Workshop Week 7 Workshop at a glance In this workshop you will • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Discuss trustworthiness in qualitative research • Assess quality in qualitative research articles • Consolidate your understanding of quantitative and qualitative research • Spend some time working on the assignment 1. Introduction to the Workshop Today’s focus is on assessing the quality of qualitative research data, and consolidating this through workshop activities. There will also be time at the end for you to ask questions about the essay due in Week 9. 2. Team Challenge Quiz (10 mins) Your Workshop Facilitator will challenge what knowledge you have gained from the pre-readings for this workshop! 3. Trustworthiness in qualitative research (15 mins) Last week we were introduced to qualitative research, the types of questions that qualitative research may answer, the main elements of qualitative research design, methods for collecting qualitative data, and assessing research methods used in qualitative research articles. Now we turn our attention to critically analysing the quality of qualitative research. There are a number of different ways we can assess the quality of qualitative research. Some academics have adapted the terms reliability and validity, which we learned about in relation to quantitative research, to be meaningful to qualitative research. Other academics use terms such as trustworthiness, authenticity and rigour, and apply a set of criteria associated with each, to evaluate the quality of qualitative research. To recap on what is in the e-Resource, let’s revisit what is meant by rigour (Module 2, Topic 4.1). In this workshop, we are now going to explore the use of the concept of trustworthiness as a means to assess the standard of qualitative research. Trustworthiness is made up of four criteria that, together, give us an indication of the rigour of the research. These criteria are: • Credibility: Do the research results seem believable? • Transferability: Could the research findings or methods be transferred from one group to another? • Dependability: Can we follow what the researcher has done in designing the study, collecting the data, and interpreting it? • Confirmability: This occurs when credibility, transferability and dependability have been established (Thomas and Magilvy, 2011) Liamputtong and Ezzy (2006) remind us that there are different types of rigour, depending on which aspect of the qualitative research study you are focusing on: Theoretical rigour: is about sound reasoning and argument, and whether the choice of methods is appropriate to the research question. A question you might ask around theoretical rigour: How appropriate was the data collection method for gathering data that would answer the research question. Methodological or procedural rigour: refers to the clarity of documentation around the conduct of the research process. A question you might ask around methodological rigour: How easy is it to understand how data was collected and recorded? Interpretive rigour: this is the level of transparency in how and why the researcher has interpreted the data in a particular way. A question you might ask around interpretive rigour: Has the researcher documented what guided them in their interpretation of the data, for example, a particular methodological approach? Triangulation: is the use of multiple data collection methods and times when data is collected, information sources, or researchers in a research project. The theory here is that collecting data from multiple sources, in various ways, by a range of people enables us to see if the information being gathered is consistent. A question you might ask around triangulation: What type and how many sources of information informed the key findings of the research? Your facilitator will now show you a short clip. Dr Ian Mosley, Senior Lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, will discuss triangulation in the context of his doctoral studies. For your reference, the video is: Mosley, I. (2015, July 23). Qualitative data and triangulation. [Video File]. Retrieved from:http://tlweb.latrobe.edu.au/health/nursing/DataResearch/QualitativeData.mp4 Entire Workshop Group Activity Armed with the information from the e-Resource, and the information at the beginning of this section, the entire workshop group is going to consider the scenario below. The facilitator will read out the scenario and then the workshop group is to discuss it in light of the following questions: • Credibility: Do the research results seem believable? • Transferability: Could the research findings or methods be transferred from one group to another? • Dependability: Can we follow what the researcher has done in designing the study, collecting the data, and interpreting it? • Confirmability: This occurs when credibility, transferability and dependability have been established. Do you think that the criteria above have been plausibly established? Why/Why not? (Thomas and Magilvy, 2011) Scenario You are watching the television program ‘Q&A’ on the ABC and a prominent politician is trying to justify his stance on why all unemployed people should be made to work for the dole. He cites a research study that followed, for 2 years, 12 young people who left school at age 16 and did not apply for any jobs in that time. He quoted from the study saying it found that young people preferred to “…sit on the couch all day, and that is why all young people who leave school early should be made to work in order to receive unemployment benefits”. You look up the research study the next day and read the article for yourself. When you get to the ‘methods’ section, all it says is: “This was a qualitative study, guided by an interest in the rich and deep meanings of the lives of the 12 young people who participated in the study. The data was gathered using individual interviews, which were audio taped and transcribed. Thematic analysis of these interviews was undertaken by the author. The main theme was that young people who leave school early are disenfranchised and marginalised by society in general. There is no impetus for them to seek employment. A life informed by work principles and work opportunities is, for many of these young people, something that seems unattainable”. 4. A Demonstration of the Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Research – (15 mins) Let’s now watch a short video that gives us a chance to think about how we might use a checklist to critique the quality of a qualitative research article: For your reference, the video is: Booth, A. (2013, November 15). Critical appraisal of a qualitative study. [Video File]. Retrieved from:https://youtu.be/vn5qhORY7fY After viewing the clip we are going to use the checklist, that you will see in this clip, to assess the quality of a qualitative research article. 5. Assessing Quality in Qualitative Research (30 mins) Team activity Individually, please read the article that is in the LMS Enquiry 2 folder and use the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Qualitative Research Checklist, that your facilitator will give to you (one per team), to assess the quality of the article. Then, as a team, please respond to the screening questions in the checklist. For each question, tick the appropriate boxes and write a few dot points, based on the appropriate information in the article, that respond to the ‘hints’ provided for each question. Your facilitator will then lead a short discussion at the end about the ease of use of the checklist and how it could be used to assess information when reading a journal article that relates to a role in the workplace. 6. Consolidating concepts of quantitative and qualitative research(15 mins) In preparation for today’s session you were asked to watch a video that consolidated many of the concepts we have learned over the past few weeks. In addition, this video demonstrated how qualitative and quantitative data is collected and analysed, and what this means for health professionals in practice. You were asked to answer the questions below. Please discuss your responses with your team.  What was the study about?  Explain how Yvonne conducted her interview so as not to compromise the validity of the measures.  Yvonne refers to quantitative data as “………”-based. (Complete the blank)  How does Angela’s semi-structured interview differ from Yvonne’s structured interview?  What are some benefits of the semi-structured interview highlighted in this research? You were also asked to complete the table below. Please compare your responses with your team. Focus Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Purpose Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Application of Outcomes 7. Work on your Enquiry 2 critical appraisal assignment (10 mins) The final 10 minutes of the workshop today have been designated as time for you to work on your assignment. This is an important opportunity for you to ask your facilitator questions about any aspect of the critical appraisal you are required to complete. Remember that the LMS forum cannot be used as a means to achieve deep assistance with your assignment – you are expected to make full use of your facilitator and workshop time. 8. Conclusion: Summary and next week(5 mins) Please be reminded that your individual 1,500 word essay is due in week 9. Individualstudent preparation for the Week 8 workshop • You can begin/continue to work on your 1,500 word essay related to this Enquiry • As part of the activities in week 8 you are required to devise a research plan related to the evaluation of a product called BioHug. Please read the following information about the BioHug and visit the product’s website https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/biohug.com/index.html. BioHug information “An inflatable hugging garment calledBioHug doles out cuddle cures. It’s a unique alternative to managing stress in people with autism say Israeli researchers. The vest is lined with air pockets that expand to create a hug-like sensation, and wearers can program the vest to deliver random or on-demand squeezes. In clinical studies, BioHug reduced major markers of stress within minutes. Because of its relaxing effect, doctors are sizing up BioHug for those with chronic pain.”   WorkshopWeek 8 Workshop at a glance In this workshop you will • Undertake your Team challenge quiz • Identify the key aspects of mixed methods research • Apply what you have learnt about quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research • Spend some time working on your assignment 1. Introduction to the Workshop Your Workshop Facilitator will provide an overview of the activities for this workshop. 2. Team Challenge Quiz (10 mins) Your Workshop Facilitator will challenge what knowledge you have gained from the pre-readings for this workshop! 3. What is mixed methods research? (30min) Team activity View the Creswell (2013) video (link below) on mixed-methods. Professor John Creswell is one of the most well-known academics in the field of mixed methods research. Creswell, J. (2013, Feb 19). What is mixed-methods research? [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OaNiTlpyX8&feature=youtu.be There are 11 questions below that relate to information in the clip. Ensure that each person in the team is allocated questions to answer, e.g.: Team member # one – questions 1 and 6 Team member # two – questions 2 and 7 Team member # three – questions 3 and 8 Team member # four – questions 4 and 9 Team member# five – questions 5 and 10 Please be sure to share your answers with your team members. Together, the questions and their answers provide a very good summary of information from weeks 4 – 8 that is highly examinable. Questions: 1. What are the four key features of mixed methods research? 2. What is NOT mixed methods? (see if you can note down 2-3 responses) 3. What do we need to view data as? (see if you can note down 2-3 responses) 4. What are three advantages of quantitative research? 5. What are three limitations of quantitative research? 6. What are three advantages of qualitative research? 7. What are three limitations of qualitative research? 8. What does ‘rigorous’ methods mean in quantitative research? Write down three examples. 9. What does ‘rigorous’ methods mean in qualitative research? Write down three examples. 10. What are the three basic mixed methods designs? Once you have watched the video and answered the questions, your facilitator will review the answers with you as a group. 4. Applying what we have learnt (35min) Team activity In this activity, the entire workshop group is going to split into three groups of even numbers. Your facilitator will do this, and then allocate each team a name: the Quantitative Methods Team, The Qualitative Methods Team and the Mixed Methods Team. Scenario: You and the other members of your team are employees of the WeCare Health Research Institute. Each of you are employed as a member of either the Quantitative Methods Team, The Qualitative Methods Team or the Mixed Methods Team. Your workshop facilitator is the Director of Research at the Institute. WeCare have recently bought the Intellectual Property rights for the BioHug https://monkessays.com/write-my-essay/biohug.com/index.html As you can read in the box below, clinical studies have indicated that the BioHug may help to reduce stress. The Director of Research would like to trial the BioHug further in relation to chronic pain. Specifically, the Director wants to know if the BioHug can reduce chronic pain for adults experiencing chronic pain from lower back injury. The Director has sent each team an urgent email: —–Original Message—– From: Jed Dye[mailto:j.dye@bigpond.com] Sent: Wednesday, January 10, 2016 8:06 AM To: ‘All staff’ Subject: Biohug research study Dear staff, I need to urgently organise a research study around the biohug. My research question is: Does the biohug reduce feelings of pain for adults experiencing chronic pain from lower back injury? I need each team to convince me as to why their research approach might be the best to answer my research question. Each team has 3 minutes in which to deliver their pitch. I look forward to hearing from each team in the next 30 minutes! Jed Dye, Director of research Teamtask: Each team has to develop a compelling, 3 minute pitch that involves: • A short definition of their research approach • What types of questions their research approach is best suited to • What types of research methods are common to their approach • What types of data their research approach will generate that could answer the research question • One method, applicable to their approach, of ensuring the data is rigorous Timing: Teams have 20minutes to research answers to the questions above and, using this information, develop a compelling argument to convince the Director of Research that their approach is the most suitable. Each team will then have 3 minutes to deliver their pitch. Teams can allocate the delivery to as many team members as they choose. No PowerPoint presentations are to be used! To be most effective teams need to use high quality information and engaging delivery techniques! 5. Work on your Enquiry 2 critical appraisal assignment (20 mins) The final 20 minutes of the workshop today have been designated as time for you to work on your assignment. This is an important opportunity for you to ask your facilitator questions about any aspect of the critical appraisal you are required to complete. Remember that the LMS forum cannot be used as a means to achieve deep assistance with your assignment – you are expected to make full use of your facilitator and workshop time. 6. Conclusion: Summary Close Enquiry 2 (5 min) Please be reminded that your essay is due next week via Turnitin. Individual student preparation for the Week 9 workshop o Download and read o Enquiry 3Student Guide, and then o Bring these documents to the workshop – either on your electronic device, or in hard copy. o Find the LMS resource that accompanies the LMS subject site. You should see this on your LMS subject contents page, it is named as: eResource – Research Basics for Health Sciences • “Module 3” in this resource is associated with Enquiry 2 in this subject. Be sure to have read the following materials in Topic 1 and 2 (Module 3): 1.0 Introduction & learning outcomes 1.1 Types of measurement and scale 1.2 Summarising different measurement scales 1.3 Frequency histograms and frequency polygons 2.1 Ratio; proportions; percentages; rates. 2.2 Measures of central tendency and variability. 2.3 Mean, Median, Mode and the Frequency Polygon. 2.31 Descriptive statistics. 2.4 Measures of variability — the range, the variance, the standard deviation and the inter-quartile range. 2.5 What is the relevance of ‘central tendency’ and ‘variability’ in health practice and research? 2.6 Sampling

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