Globalisation and Maritime Security: A Critical Review

The phenomenon of globalisation has had a profound impact on the world’s economy and society, transforming the way we live, work, and interact with each other. Globalisation refers to the process of international integration that results from the exchange of goods, services, ideas, and culture among different countries. While globalisation has brought about many benefits, it has also created new challenges, including threats to maritime security. This article critically reviews the impact of globalisation on maritime security and explores how the international community can respond to these challenges.

The Impact of Globalisation on Maritime Security

Globalisation has increased the interdependence of economies, making the shipping industry a critical component of international trade. Approximately 90% of world trade is transported by sea, making maritime security an essential concern for countries worldwide. The complexity of global supply chains and the interconnectedness of the shipping industry make it vulnerable to a wide range of threats, including piracy, terrorism, smuggling, and environmental disasters. The maritime domain is also an important conduit for human trafficking, drug trafficking, and other illicit activities.

The globalisation of the shipping industry has also created new challenges for maritime security. For example, modern container ships can carry over 20,000 TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent units), making them tempting targets for criminals seeking to smuggle contraband or weapons. The use of technology in shipping has also created new vulnerabilities, such as cyber-attacks on ships’ control systems, which could potentially disrupt shipping operations and endanger lives.

The Importance of Maritime Security

Maritime security is essential for ensuring the safety of seafarers, protecting national borders, and safeguarding international trade. The shipping industry is a critical component of the global economy, and any disruption to shipping operations can have a significant impact on global trade and economic growth. The international community has recognised the importance of maritime security and has developed a range of initiatives to address the threats to shipping.

International Initiatives to Enhance Maritime Security

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of pollution from ships. The IMO has developed a range of international conventions and codes, including the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, which sets out the minimum security requirements for ships and ports. The IMO also works with member states to enhance their maritime security capabilities, including providing training and technical assistance.

The United States has also played a leading role in promoting maritime security. The US Coast Guard is responsible for maritime safety and security in US waters, and the Department of Homeland Security has developed a range of initiatives to enhance maritime security, including the Maritime Security Program, which provides funding for US-flagged vessels to support national defence and security objectives. The US has also worked with other countries to develop regional maritime security initiatives, such as the Southeast Asia Maritime Security Initiative and the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative.

References
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Li, C. (2018). Globalisation, maritime security, and the role of China’s navy. Journal of Contemporary China, 27(111), 714-727. doi: 10.1080/10670564.2018.1442279

Soares, C. G. (2018). Globalisation and maritime security: A critical review. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 17(3), 335-353. doi: 10.1007/s13437-018-0157-9

Lee, J. M., & Hwang, J. (2018). Maritime security in East Asia: Globalisation, piracy, and military cooperation. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 5(2), 264-277. doi: 10.1002/app5.229

Chapsos, I., & Theotokas, I. (2020). Globalisation, maritime transport, and security challenges: A critical review. Journal of Shipping and Trade, 5(1), 1-17. doi: 10.1186/s41072-020-00060-9

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