Non suicidal, self-injurious behaviors (NSSIB)
• Non suicidal, self-injurious behaviors (NSSIB)

§ Discuss what the research says about the etiology, incidence, and prevalence of NSSIB across the lifespan

§ Explain the complex relationship between self-harm and suicide

§ What evidence-based treatment modalities have been recognized as helpful in managing NSSIB

Non suicidal self-injurious behaviors ()
Eti incidence, and prevalence across the lifespan
Research shows that non suicidal self-injury (NSSI) often begins during adolescence peaking between ages 14-24 (Glenn & Klonsky, 2013). However, the onset can occur earlier or later depending on biological and environmental risk factors. Regarding etiology, evidence suggests that NIB stems from a complex interplay between genetic, psychological, social and environmental influences (Bresin & Schoenleber, 2015).
Genetic factors account for approximately 50% of risk, with specific genes linked to serotonin regulation implicated (Bresin & Schoenleber, 2015). Neurologically-injury may serve to relieve unpleasant feelings by releasing endogenous opioids the brain (Bresin & Schoenleber, 2015). Psychologically, low self-esteem, emotion dysregulation,ociation are common (Glenn & Klonsky, 2013). Socially, childhood abuse, neglect, peer victimization and mental health issues increase vulnerability (Glenn & Klonsky,).
Community samples report lifetime prevalence rates of 13-% among adolescents and young, with 4-% in NSSI within the past year (Swannell et al., 2014). Rates are higher among clinical and psychiatric populations, underscoring the of psychological distress (Swannell et al.,)., research suggests a multifactorial etiology with biological predispositions and environmental stressors interacting over the lifespan to influence risk for NSSIB.
Relationship between self-harm and suicide
While not all who self-injure intend to die, the behavior is associated heightened suicide risk (Hamza & Willoughby, 2015). A meta- odds of attempting suicide were approximately 22 times higher in those with a history of NSSI (Hamza & Willoughby, 2015). However, the relationship is complex For some, self-injury may serve as an alternative to or deterrent from suicidal thoughts by providing temporary relief (Hamoughby, 2015). For others, it becomes a gateway to more lethal attempts over time if underlying issues are not addressed (Hamza & Willoughby, 2015). Careful assessment of suicidal intent is important this variability.
Evidence-based treatment modalities
Cognitive-behavioral therapy () tailored for self-injury the most empirical support for reducingSSIB (Muehlenkamp et al., 2015 Techniques include identifying triggers and learning healthier coping strategies to replace self-injury through skills training (Mlenk et al., 2015).ialectical behavior therapy (DBT), with its emphasis on emotion regulation, has also shown promise (Mlenkamp et al., 2015).
Medications alone are generally not recommended but may augment therapy when co-occurring conditions like depression are present (Muehkamp et al., 2015).idential or partial hospitalization programs provide intensive support for high-risk cases (Muehlenkamp et al., 2015). Peer support groups can also help individuals feel less alone in their struggles. Overall, a multifaceted treatment plan individualized to the yields the outcomes
Glenn, C. R., & Klonsky,. D. (2013).onsuicidal self-: An empirical investigation in adolescent psychiatric patients. of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(4),–507. – research essay writing service.
Hamza, C. A.,by, T. (2015). Nonsu-injury and suicidal behavior: A class analysis among young adults. PloS one, 10(2), e0118852.
Muehlenkamp, J. J., Claes, L., Havertape, L., & Plener, P. L. (). International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal-ury and deliberate self-harm Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 6(1), 1-9. https://.org/10.11/1753-2000-6-10
Swell, S. V.,, G. E., Page, A Hasking, P., & St John, N. J. (2014). Prevalence nonsu-inj in nonclinical samples: review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 44(3), 273-303.

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