Pollution and Air Quality analysis

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According to Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions article Toward a Better Understanding of the Ecological Consequences of Fossil Fuel Combustion (1981), Ecosystems can be organized by the level of biological organization at which impacts are directly measured. Acidic depositions associated with acidic precipitation of sulfuric and nitric acid, from their respective oxides sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide. These acids affect terrestrial ecosystems by increasing their chronic acidification leading to nutrient deficiency in soil, aluminium mobilization and thus decreased health of plants (Driscoll et al. 2001). In aquatic ecosystems, it causes reduction in Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) and increased aluminium concentration that leads to death of sensitive species and a change in nutrient cycling and energy flows (Bulger et al. 1998). Nitrogen availability due to atmospheric deposition can cause terrestrial plants to increase biological productivity which is beyond normal levels and it also affects their biogeochemical cycles of the watersheds leading to disruption in plant soil nutrient transfer. Another effect is increase in ozone concentration in the atmosphere this is due to oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in the presence of oxides of Nitrogen (Fowler 2002). Ozone is known to have pulmonary effects on to mammals and avian species (Rombut et al. 1991). Foliar damage, decreased chlorophyll content and decreased photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystem
2. Phytotoxicity refers to plant damage caused by certain insecticides or spray mixtures according to Kristin Getter of Michigan State University Extension, Department of Horticulture. Phytotoxic pollutants can cause damage to plant species as well as the air quality. Atmospheric deposition causes changes in the ecosystem. Its acidic deposition to the ecosystem causes formation of acid rain in the ecosystem. Soils are unable to neutralize this acidified rain leading to reduced calcium and magnesium carbonates in the soil which are important for healthy plant growth. The high concentration of phytotoxic in the air causes stratospheric depletion of ozone this leads to the earth surface being exposed to ultraviolet rays that lead to plants growth being redundant leading to short plants. Phytotoxicity also leads to global warming. Atmospheric temperature is one of the factors that affect the distribution of plants and as well animals according to Air Quality Fourth Edition by Thad Godish. Even a slight change in temperature can lead to change of behaviour of plants and animals in most cases this effect may not be positive. It also leads to thinning of ice cover in the Polar Regions due to increased temperature that causes melting of ice.

REFERENCES
– Air Quality Fourth Edition by Thad Godish. Page 217 and 218
– Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions article Toward a Better Understanding of the Ecological Consequences of Fossil Fuel Combustion (1981)
– Article on Ecological Effects of Nitrogen Deposition in the Western United States of America

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